Japan Society E-Library

British Embassy and Legation (see also 'Japan Consular Service', 'Diplomacy', 'Diplomats', 'Ambassadors')

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VII
Author: Busk, Douglas

This fascinating first-hand account of the impact of the declaration of war by Japan upon Britain in 1941 provides reflections upon the diplomatic and personal situaions of the staff engaged in Anglo-Japanese relations at the time.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VIII
Author: Morton, Robert

A.B. Mitford (1837-1916) led a long, adventurous, and well-connected life. This essay recounts how his time in Japan under Sir Harry Parkes coloured the rest of his life.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

This article details Sir Rutherford Alcock's (1809-1897) return to Japan in 1867 and, in particualar, his actions taken with regard to the Shimonoseki Straits.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume III
Author: Nish, Ian

Though Aoki Shūzō was in many ways a Germanophile, there is a strong current running through his diplomatic career of concern with Britain, particularly with regard to the 'unequal' treaties.

Book: Japanese Envoys in Britain 1862-1964: A Century of Diplomatic Exchange
Author: Nish, Ian

Though Aoki Shūzō (1844-1914) was in many ways a Germanophile, there is a strong current running through his diplomatic career of concern with Britain, particularly with regard to the 'unequal' treaties.

Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Abraham, Jimmie; Hugh Cortazzi; Peter Dean; John Figgess; Gail Forrest; and Mike Forrest

Officers from all three services have done stints in post-war Japan as advisers during the Occupation years. Their tasks were to observe the demilitarization of Japan and then to develop contacts with the Self-Defense Forces, and more recently to promote defence sales from British manufacturers. Here a number of previous service attachés recount their experience in Japan. 

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume II
Author: Hoare, James Edward

This portrait provides a detailed account of the establishment and modus operandi of the Japan Consular Service (1859-1941) from the opening of Japan to the end of the Second World War.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Hoare, James Edward

This portrait provides a detailed account of the establishment and modus operandi of the Japan Consular Service (1859-1941) from the opening of Japan to the end of the Second World War.

Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

A list of post-war British Ambassadors to Japan with commentary by Hugh Cortazzi.

Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Thorne, Ben

Ben Thorne was closely involved in efforts to persuade British exporters to look at opportunities in Japan, organised the 1969 British Week in Tokyo, and then formed the Tokyo Export Marketing Centre in 1973. Here he reflects on UK-Japan Commercial relations from 1968 to '79.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IX
Author: Dimond, Paul

This portrait is of the generations of individuals who built the structure for promoting British business in Japan in the early 1970s.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VIII
Author: Roberts, Christopher

The Ansei treaties which followed the 'opening' of Japan in 1859 provided for extra-territorial rights, by which the accused of any treaty power were dealt with by that coutry's own courts. This portrait details the activities of the consular courts from 1859-99.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IX
Author: Thorne, Ben

The British Week held in Tokyo from 26 September 1969 was a successful example of official efforts to promote British exports to the growing Japanese market in the 1960s. This portrait details and assesses the impact of the event.

Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh, and David Hockney

In his book David Hockney, David Hockney recorded the details of his 1971 visit to Japan. He later visited the British Embassy, resulting in the work Lunch at the British Embassy.

Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Powers, David, and Carolyn Whitehead

Carolyn Whitehead, wife of the British Ambassador, and David Powers, BBC correspondent in Japan at the time, recall the death of the Shōwa Emperor in 1989.

Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Giffard, Sydney

Having completed his time as a language student, future Ambassador Sydney Giffard was sent to the Kansai to gain experience as a Vice-Consul. Here he describes life in Kansai in the 1950s, putting it in the context of progressive centralization in Tokyo.

Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Ripley, Eddie

Eddie Ripley gives an account of his efforts to study Japanese and of his early experiences as a vice-consul in Yokohama in the late 1950s and '60s.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VI
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

Edward Heath (1916-2005) was the first British Prime Minister to make an official visit to Japan. This essay details Heath's 1972 visit and its aftermath.

Book: Britain and Japan 1859-1991: Themes and Personalities
Author: Kornicki, Peter

Detailing Sir Ernest Satow's (1843-1929) diplomatic and scholarly career, including his time as head of the British Mission in Japan.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IX
Author: Pilcher, John

This essay contains a perceptive amd amusing account of EXPO '70 at Osaka, as well as Britain's involvement in the proceedings.

Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Connors, Lesley; Lydia Gomersall; Janet Hunter; Peter Martin; and Anne Kaneko

Expo '70 was the first world's fair held in Japan, and was given the theme 'Progress and Harmony for Mankind'. Here three helpers from the British Pavilion and Peter Martin of the British Council recreate the atmosphere of the event.

Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Casson, Hugh, and Hugh Cortazzi

Artist Hugh Casson visited Japan in 1981 for the 'Great Japan Exhibition' of Edo period art. During his time there he made a number of sketches, later published as part of the 1991 Japan Festival in Britain.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IV
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

Hugh Fraser (1837-1894) presided over one of the most significant developments in Western relations with Japan, the replacement of the 'unequal' treaty originally signed in 1858. This essay surveys his involvement with the Japanese political scene.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

Hugh Fraser (1837-1894) presided over one of the most significant developments in Western relations with Japan, the replacement of the 'unequal' treaties originally signed in 1858. This essay surveys his involvement with the Japanese political scene.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VI
Author: O'Connor, Peter

This essay provides an account of the life and career of journalist Hugh Byas (1875-1945), in particular his writing on Japan's interbellum political development.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume I
Author: Nish, Ian

This essay considers the dual aspects of Frank Ashton-Gwatkin's (1889-1976) life: diplomat and author, and his affection for, and understanding of, Japan.

Book: Britain and Japan 1859-1991: Themes and Personalities
Author: Buckley, Roger

As the first British Ambassador to Japan after the War, Esler Dening (1897-1977) was the central figure in Anglo-Japanese relations at a time when British opinion was distinctly anti-Japanese.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh
Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Nish, Ian

Ian Nish's Introduction to Part II of British Envoys to Japan: From the Alliance to Estrangement. .

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Lowe, Peter

Peter Lowe's Introduction to Part III of British Envoys in Japan: The Post-war Years.

Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Figgess, John

Diplomat John Figgess was among the first of the British contingent to arrive in Tokyo in 1945 and in this chapter he describes his arrival and his work in Japan.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume II
Author: Nish, Ian

Dubbed a 'master of the various problems of our Far Eastern Ally', John Harrington Gubbins (1852-1929) enjoyed a remarkable and significant diplomatic career in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Nish, Ian

Detailing John Harrington Gubbins's (1852-1929) long relationship with Japan, beginning as a student interpretor with the Far East Consular Service through to dealings with the British Legation in Japan. 

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VI
Author: Ruxton, Ian

This essay provides an account of the life and career of Joseph Longford (1849-1925), one of the forgotten scholars of the Japan service.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IX
Author: Nish, Ian

Although in his early years Admiral Katō Hiroharu (1870-1939) admired Britain, in his later career he understandably placed Japan's naval interests ahead of any residual affection for the country. This essay considers the early part of his career, during which he played a significant role in Anglo-Japanese naval cooperation.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VIII
Author: Hoare, James Edward

This portait gives an account of the activities of the Japan Consular Service outside of Japan in Korea, Taiwan, and Manchuria (then parts of the Japanese Empire), and how they paved the way for the 1943 Eden reforms which ended the distinction between the British diplomatic and consular services.

Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Britton, Dorothy

Dorothy Britton was born in Japan before the war and returned there during the Occupation. This chapter gives an account of her life as a bridge between Japanese and English cultures.

Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Pinnell, Alan

Alan Pinnell's diplomatic career in Japan spanned some twenty years, from the late 1960s to the late '80s. Here he picks out some of the most memorable moments from his time in Japan, starting with his time as a language student and culminating with the visit of the Prince and Princess of Wales in 1986, via his time in the commercial department.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume II
Author: Blacker, Carmen

Before his unfortunate infatuation with conman Thomas Lake Harris, Laurence Oliphant (1858-88) made two visits to Japan, each time leaving a fascinating account of his adventures. This essay details those colourful adventures, both personal and diplomatic.

Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Mayall, Lees

Lees Mayall was based in Japan from 1958 to 1961, tasked with keeping an eye on the Japanese Government's new 'American-imposed democracy'. This chapter comprises extracts from his memoir Fireflies in Amber, in which he describes his reactions to Japan.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VIII
Author: Dobson, Sebastian

The death of Everard Calthrop (1876-1915) on the Western Front on 19 December 1915 cut short a career which had already done much to increase mutual awareness between the British and Japanese armies since 1902. This essay charts the human impact of the First World War on Anglo-Japanese reltions.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume II
Author: Ion, Hamish

This portrait considers the missionary efforts and chaplaincy of Lionel Berners Cholmondeley (1887-1921) throughout Japan, and his close links with the private world of British diplomats in Tokyo as Chaplian for the British legation.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IV
Author: Best, Antony

Initially an ambassador for British aviation and friend of Japan, Lord Sempill (1893-1965) ended his career in disgrace having received payments for providing Japan with information during the Second World War.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

Detailing Lt Colonel Edward St John Neale's (1812-1866) time in charge of the British Legation in Japan during Sir Rutherford Alcock's time of leave. This article appraises Neale's actions in response to the Namamugi incident, the second Tōzenji incident and the bombardment of Kagoshima during a turbulent time in Anglo-Japanese affairs. 

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume I
Author: Nish, Ian

This essay recounts the diplomatic career of Sir Claude MacDonald (1852-1915) in Japan in the early 20th century - a highpoint in Anglo-Japanese relations.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VIII
Author: Best, Antony

This essay details the miltary and diplomatic career of Major-General F.S.G. Piggott (1883-1966), whose efforts to secure peace and improve relations between Japan and Britain were fatally clouded by an uncritical love for Japan. Following the Pacific War he devoted his life to the restoration of Anglo-Japanese friendship.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume II
Author: Hanaoka Sosuke

A Japanese account of the Anglo-Japanese Commercial Treaty.

Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Baker-Bates, Merrick

Merrick Baker-Bates was first a diplomatic service language student in Japan before becoming Commercial Counsellor. Having transferred to commerce for four years he subsequently returned to the diplomatic service as Consul General in LA. Here he describes his various lives in Japan, with particular reference to his time as a language student, the shift in emphasis in the 1960s to promoting British exports, and to his time as General Manager of Cornes and Company.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VI
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

Morita Akio (1921-99) was one of the main driving forces behind the Sony Corporation. This essay details his career, personality, and business philosophy, as well as his relationship with Britain.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VII
Author: Robinson, Eleanor

Nakai Hiromu (1838-94) went by many names, and played an important, but largely forgotten, part in Anglo-Japanese relations. This essay details his career and attitudes towards both his own culture and British culture.

Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Barrington, Nicholas

Nicholas Barrington described himself as not a Japanese specialist, but an admirer. Here he recalls his time as Head of Chancery in Japan.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh
Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh
Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh
Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh
Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Parker, Peter

The importance of attracting capital investment to Britain was increasingly recognised by British governments from the 1970s onwards. Businessman Peter Parker became closely involved with Japanese investment in Britain. Here he recounts his later experiences with Japan and considers the future.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

This article considers the very short period that Power Henry Le Poer Trench (1841-99) served as British Minister to Japan before his appointment was cut short by ill health. 

Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Ellingworth, Dick, and Brian Hitch

The pre-war Japan Consular Service sent selected new entrants each year to study Japanese, creating a corps of Japanese-speaking consuls. The Foreign Office realised that Japanese-speaking officers would be needed after the war in the embassy, and in consular posts in Japan, and so revived the practice in 1951. In this chapter Dick Ellingworth and Brian Hitch describe the system.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Dening, Esler; Geoffrey Hudson; and Richard Storry

Sir Esler Dening looks back on his time in post-war Japan.

Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Hand, Peter

Banker Peter Hand reflects on the changed circumstances for British banks in Japan from the post war period to the 1980s.

Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Large, Dick; Graham McCallum; Martyn Naylor; Ann Wilkinson; and David Wilkinson

One of the key service sectors for Britain in Japan was the airline industry, and until the late 1980s the main British company involved was British Airways. Here David Wilkinson, BA's manager in Japan from 1978 to '87 gives an account of his experience there, along with his wife, Ann Wilkinson's reflections. Following this, Martin Naylor recalls the important role played by the Japan British Society in the 1960s and '70s. During a forty-year career in Japan, Dick Large worked for John Swire & Sons (during which time he precided over Swire Japan's international shipping operations), Cathay Pacific and BA. Here he reflects on this period.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VI
Author: Cheke, Dudley

A facsimile of the British Embassy, Tokyo, report on the Beatles' 1966 visit to Japan.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VIII
Author: Hoashi Kōji

This portrait charts the career of Ron Duckenfield (1917-2010) throughout the Second World War, as a fighter pilot and as a prisoner-of-war under the Japanese, and subsequently as air attaché to the British Embassy in Tokyo.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IX
Author: Jack, Stuart

This essay charts the way in which discriminatory taxes on Scotch Whisky were tackled and overcome during the 1980s.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume I
Author: Lowe, Peter

Sir Alvary Gascgoine (1946-1951) headed the British liaison mission in Tokyo from 1946 to '51, and was responsible for establishing postive relations with General Douglas MacArthur.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Lowe, Peter

Sir Alvary Gascgoine (1946-1951) headed the British liaison mission in Tokyo from 1946 to '51, and was responsible for establishing postive relations with General Douglas MacArthur.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VII
Author: Nish, Ian

Cecil Rice (1861-1918) played an important role in the Russo-Japanese War and subsequently served as Ambassador in Washington during the First World War. This chapter charts his diplomatic career through times of peace and of war, outlining his affection for and dealings with Japan.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Nish, Ian

This essay recounts the diplomatic career of Sir Claude MacDonald (1852-1915) in Japan in the early 20th century - a highpoint in Anglo-Japanese relations.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

Sir Daniel Lascelles (1902-1967) was an unlikely appointment as British ambassador to Japan having no connections or knowledge of the Japanse language, culture or people. This profile details his ineffectual time as ambassador. 

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IV
Author: Blacker, Carmen

Sir Edwin Arnold's (1832-1904) time in Japan can be described as nothing less than a love-affair. This portrait considers the impact of Japan upon his writing and poetic career, as well as the impact Arnold had on the understanding of Japan in Britain as he sought to promote and explain Japanese culture.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Kornicki, Peter

This article details Sir Ernest Mason Satow's (1843-1929) further pursuits in Japan between 1873 to 1884. 

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IV
Author: Ruxton, Ian

Sir Ernest Satow (1843-1929) served as head of the British Mission in Japan from 1895 to 1900, and this essay uses his diaries to arrive at an understanding of his chief concerns during his time in Tokyo.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Ruxton, Ian

Sir Ernest Satow (1843-1929), generally regarded as the best qualified official and the most outstanding scholar of Japanese to have been appointed Head of Mission to Japan, served in this rol from 1895 to 1900, and this essay uses his diaries to arrive at an understanding of his chief concerns during his time in Tokyo.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Dening, Esler
Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Buckley, Roger

Concerning Sir Esler Dening (1897-1977) as a main figure in Anglo-Japanese relations following the ending of the Pacific War, at a time when British opinion was anti-Japanese. 

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IV
Author: Nish, Ian

Rather than assessing Sir Francis Lindley (1872-1950) as a diplomat, this portrait provides an assessment of his character through the lens of his second term in Japan and as chairman of the Council of the Japan Society of London

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Nish, Ian

Rather than assessing Sir Francis Lindley (1872-1950) as a diplomat, this portrait provides an assessment of his character through the lens of his second term in Japan and as chairman of the Council of the Japan Society of London

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VII
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

Sir Francis Ottiwell Adams (1826-89) was Secretary of the Legation in Edo from 1868 to 1872. This essay shows how his career in the legation was an important one in the history of modern Japan, having occurred at a time of much social upheaval.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IV
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

This portrait considers the diplomatic career of Sir Francis Plunkett (1835-1907), British Minister at Tokyo from 1884-87, particularly in relation to the attempted revision of the 'unequal treaties'.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

This portrait considers the diplomatic career of Sir Francis Plunkett (1835-1907), British Minister at Tokyo from 1884-87, particularly in relation to the attempted revision of the 'unequal treaties'.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

Concerning Sir Francis Rundall's (1908-1987) time as ambassador to Japan overseeing the confrontation between Indonesia and Malaysia in 1963, the Olympic games in 1964 and the British Exhibition at Harumi in 1965.

Book: Britain and Japan 1859-1991: Themes and Personalities
Author: Daniels, Gordon

This profile considers equally Sir George Sansom's (1883-1965) career as a diplomat, in which he pioneered the serious study of the Japanese economy, and historian. 

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Daniels, Gordon

This profile considers equally Sir George Sansom's (1883-1965) career as a diplomat, scholar and historian. 

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

This portrait reflects on the diplomatic career of Sir Harry Parkes (1828-1885) from 1865 to 1883, a period of unprecedented revolutionary change, assessing both his personal characteristics and his diplomatic achievements.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IX
Author: Morton, Robert

Interactions with Japan only played a very short part in Sir Henry Keppel's (1809-1904) naval career, but the few years of his involvement saw the collapse of the bakufu and the Meiji Restoration. This essay details his short, but significant, contribution to Anglo-Japanese relations, particularly with regard to the British response to the Meiji Restoration.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VIII
Author: Roberts, Christopher

Sir Hiram Shaw Wilkinson (1840-1926) was one of the leading personalities in the British extra-territorial regime in Japan. He was a member of the Japan Consular Service, an independent practising barrister and the last Judge of Her Britannic Majesty's Court for Japan.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume III
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

This essay provides an account of the life and career of Sir John Figgess (1909-97), businessman, intelligence officer, diplomat and art expert.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume III
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

This essay describes how Sir John Pilcher (1912-90), as British ambassador in Japan between 1967 and 1972, helped to revive Anglo-Japanese friendship after the Second World War and was long remembered with affection both in Japan and by his friends and colleagues.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

This essay describes how Sir John Pilcher (1912-1990), as British ambassador in Japan between 1967 and 1972, helped to revive Anglo-Japanese friendship after the Second World War and was long remembered with affection both in Japan and by his friends and colleagues.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IV
Author: Gotō-Shibata, Harumi

 Sir John Tilley (1869-1951) was ambassador in Tokyo from 1926-31, and this essay covers his time in office and limited achievements.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Gotō-Shibata, Harumi

 Sir John Tilley (1869-1951) was ambassador in Tokyo from 1926-31, and this essay covers his time in office and limited achievements.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VII
Author: Steeds, David

Intertwined throughout Miles Lampson's (1880-1964) diplomatic career were dealings with and a genuine affection for Japan. This biography traces those dealings, beginning with his involvement in the 1906 Garter Mission, and provides a portrait of this British diplomatic figure.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Whitehead, John

This portrait details Sir Oscar Morland's (1904-1980) career and long association with Japan, as part of the Far East Consular Service and later as British ambassador to Japan. 

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IV
Author: Best, Anthony

The period in which Sir Robert Clive (1877-1948) was Ambassador to Japan (1934-37) has been the subject of much study, but the man himself remains a mystery. This essay contends that this was because there was little friction between the Embassy and London despite this being a particularly trying time.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Best, Anthony

The period in which Sir Robert Clive (1877-1948) was Ambassador to Japan (1934-37) has been the subject of much study, but the man himself remains a mystery. This essay contends that this was because there was little friction between the Embassy and London at this difficult time.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume I
Author: Best, Antony

This essay charts the diplomatic career of Robert Craigie (1937-1941) in Japan, one of the most controversial subjects in the history of inter-war Anglo-Japanese relations.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Best, Antony

This essay charts the diplomatic career of Robert Craigie (1937-1941) in Japan, one of the most controversial subjects in the history of inter-war Anglo-Japanese relations.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume II
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

A reassessment of the career of Sir Rutherford Alcock (1809-1897), the first British Minister to Japan from 1859-64.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

A reassessment of the career of Sir Rutherford Alcock (1809-1897), the first British Minister to Japan from 1859-64.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume II
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

Vere Redman (1901-1975) worked, throughout his career as a journalist, press attaché, and in the British Ministry of Information, to contribute to understanding between British and Japanese. This essay recounts his journalistic efforts as they relate to Anglo-Japanese relations.

Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Redman, Vere

Vere Redman was a notable eccentric, but devoted to Anglo-Japanese relations. This chapter comprises extracts from a talk given by Redman, 'Things I have learned in and From Japan', covering both the pre- and post-war.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IV
Author: Lowe, Peter

Sir William Conyngham Greene (1854-1934) assumed his diplomatic posts in Pretoria and later Japan at times of accelerating tension and turbulence in the and late 19th early 20th centuries. This essay charts his career through both of these times.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Lowe, Peter

Sir William Conyngham Greene (1854-1934) assumed his diplomatic posts in Pretoria and later Japan at times of accelerating tension and turbulence in the and late 19th early 20th centuries. This essay charts his career through both of these times.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume II
Author: Gray, Robin

This essay recalls the circumstances in which the the Anglo-Japanese Commercial Treaty of 1962 was made and its implications for trade between the two countries.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VI
Author: Daniels, Gordon, and Robert Whitaker

This essay reports on the Daiwa Foundations 40th anniversary of the Beatle's visit to Japan in 1966.

Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Whitehead, John

In the 1950s the Foreign Office maintained the tradition of sending language students to Japan. Here future Ambassador Tim Whitehead recalls his time, from 1956, as one such student, including his extensive travelling around the country.

Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Powers, David, and Whitehead, Carolyn

Carolyn Whitehead, wife of the British Ambassador, and David Powers, BBC correspondent in Japan at the time, continue their account of the death of the Shōwa Emperor in 1989, with the enthronement of Emperor Akihito.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VIII
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

This essay uses the tragic death of Melville James Cox (1885-1940) in Tokyo to assess the misconduct of the Kempeitai in arresting British citizens during the Second World War.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VI
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

This essay provides an account and analysis of The Shōwa Emperor's (Hirohito's) visit to Britain in 1970. It marked the first Japanese state visit to Britian, as well as the first time a Japanese emperor had ever made a visit abroad.

Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Ellingworth, Dick, and Francis Rundall

Dick Ellingworth, First Secretary and Olympic Attaché at the Embassy from 1963 recalls the state of Japan at this time, and the Embassy's role in the Tokyo Olympics.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IV
Author: Dunne, Anthony, and Bowen, Richard

This portrait sketches the life, attitude and career of the renowned judo practitioner Trevor Pryce Leggett (1914-2000).

Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Bradley, Clive, and Bill Williamson

Bill Williamson did two separate tours as Atomic Energy Attaché at the British Embassy. His account of working with the Japanese government in the commissioning of the first nuclear power stations in Japan is a reminder of an important and often over-looked facet of Anglo-Japan relations. Clive Bradley meanwhile was Counsellor for Science and Technology in the British Embassy in the 1980s where he was responsible for reporting on scientific and technological developments and for promoting British science and technology.

Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Elston, Chris, and Geoffrey Littler

Before the 1970s there seemed to be little scope for British financial services in the closed Japanese market. Japanese membership of the OECD, however, forced gradual changes, along with internal pressure from Japanese companies wanting access to foreign loans. Here Chris Elston, who joined the British Embassy as Financial Counsellor in 1979 recalls his time as Bank of England representative in Japan, and reflects on both the state of Japan's banking system and general accounting practices in the years leading up to the crisis. Meanwhile, Geoffrey Little of HM Treasury gives an account of negotiations to ensure that Britain kept pace with American financial institutions in Japan.

Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Blunden, Edmund; Reg Close; Dennis Enright; George Fraser; Francis King; and E.W.F. Tomlin

In 1947 Vere Redman reinstated the policy of attaching a prominent writer as teacher of English to the mission in Japan, to be 'placed at the disposal of Japanese Universities'. Edmund Blunden, George Fraser and D.J. Enright all held this post, and this chapter records their thoughts on Japan, along with those of a number of prominent figures with the British Council in Japan, Reg Close, Francis King, Leslie Phillips, Ronald Bottrall, E.W.F.Tomlin.

Book: Britain and Japan 1859-1991: Themes and Personalities
Author: Kornicki, Peter

This chapter assesses the life of William George Aston (1841-1911), a diplomat and prominent scholar of Japan. Though Aston remains somewhat of a shadowy figure due to the lack of knowledge of his private life, this appraisal details how his scholarly works in the fields of linguistics and religion have stood the test of time.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Kornicki, Peter

This profile details William George Aston's (1841-1911) career in the consular service and his scholarly achievments as a writer of Japanese language learning books. 

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