Japan Society E-Library

Diplomacy & diplomats (see also 'Ambassadors')

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VII
Author: Busk, Douglas

This fascinating first-hand account of the impact of the declaration of war by Japan upon Britain in 1941 provides reflections upon the diplomatic and personal situaions of the staff engaged in Anglo-Japanese relations at the time.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VI
Author: Best, Antony

Following the collapse of the Romanov, Hohenzollerns and Hapsburg powers in 1917-18, Britain's most significant royal relationship was with Imperial Japan. This essay details Court Diplomacy between 1900-41, shedding light on the broader Anglo-Japanese relationship.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VIII
Author: Morton, Robert

A.B. Mitford (1837-1916) led a long, adventurous, and well-connected life. This essay recounts how his time in Japan under Sir Harry Parkes coloured the rest of his life.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume V
Author: Chapman, John W.M.

This portrait consdiers how Admiral Sir John Fisher's (1841-1920) role in Anglo-Japanese naval relations played into a larger theatre of war and diplomacy in Europe and the far East.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

This article details Sir Rutherford Alcock's (1809-1897) return to Japan in 1867 and, in particualar, his actions taken with regard to the Shimonoseki Straits.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume III
Author: Nish, Ian

Though Aoki Shūzō was in many ways a Germanophile, there is a strong current running through his diplomatic career of concern with Britain, particularly with regard to the 'unequal' treaties.

Book: Japanese Envoys in Britain 1862-1964: A Century of Diplomatic Exchange
Author: Nish, Ian

Though Aoki Shūzō (1844-1914) was in many ways a Germanophile, there is a strong current running through his diplomatic career of concern with Britain, particularly with regard to the 'unequal' treaties.

Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Abraham, Jimmie; Hugh Cortazzi; Peter Dean; John Figgess; Gail Forrest; and Mike Forrest

Officers from all three services have done stints in post-war Japan as advisers during the Occupation years. Their tasks were to observe the demilitarization of Japan and then to develop contacts with the Self-Defense Forces, and more recently to promote defence sales from British manufacturers. Here a number of previous service attachés recount their experience in Japan. 

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IX
Author: Nish, Ian

As future Prime Minister Arthur Balfour (1848-1930) was emerging as a prominant politician, Japan was coming on to the international map. Balfour's career came to reflect this change in Japan's stature, as the country went from low to high priority in the eyes of the British Foreign Office.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume II
Author: Hoare, James Edward

This portrait provides a detailed account of the establishment and modus operandi of the Japan Consular Service (1859-1941) from the opening of Japan to the end of the Second World War.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Hoare, James Edward

This portrait provides a detailed account of the establishment and modus operandi of the Japan Consular Service (1859-1941) from the opening of Japan to the end of the Second World War.

Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

A list of post-war British Ambassadors to Japan with commentary by Hugh Cortazzi.

Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Barrett, Michael; Joan Martin; and Peter Martin

Prominent representatives of the British Council in Japan reflect on their experiences, which included writing books on Japanese food, entertaining visiting politicians and celebreties, organising festivals and promoting education and culture. Particular attention is given to difficulties encountered with the English language teaching system.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IX
Author: Dimond, Paul

This portrait is of the generations of individuals who built the structure for promoting British business in Japan in the early 1970s.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IX
Author: Thorne, Ben

The British Week held in Tokyo from 26 September 1969 was a successful example of official efforts to promote British exports to the growing Japanese market in the 1960s. This portrait details and assesses the impact of the event.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume V
Author: Chapman, John W.M.

This essay recounts Captain W.C. Pakenham RN's (1861-1933) role in supporting Japanese naval efforts during the Russo-Japanese war.

Book: Japanese Envoys in Britain 1862-1964: A Century of Diplomatic Exchange
Author: Nish, Ian

Chinda Sutemi ( 1857-1929) presided over a period in postwar Anglo-Japanese relations where he was responsible for diplomacy at what would later come to be understood as critical junctures in the build up to the Second World War. This essay charts his career through the London Embassy, at the Paris Peace Conference and up to Japan's exit from the League of Nations.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume V
Author: Nish, Ian

Chinda Sutemi (1857-1929) presided over a period in postwar Anglo-Japanese relations where he was responsible for diplomacy at critical junctures. This essay charts his career through the London Embassy, at the Paris Peace Conference and up to Japan's exit from the League of Nations.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume V
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

This portrait considers the most significant of Crown Prince Akihito's several visits to Britain, made during the Coronation of Elizabeth II.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume II
Author: Nish, Ian

This essay discusses the Crown Prince Hirohito's 1921 visit to Britain in its broader historical context.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume V
Author: Gornall, Martin

This portrait considers the complex figure of contradictions and extremes that is Dr Thomas Baty (1869-1954), the legal adviser to the Japanese Foreign Ministry from 1916-41.

Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Giffard, Sydney

Having completed his time as a language student, future Ambassador Sydney Giffard was sent to the Kansai to gain experience as a Vice-Consul. Here he describes life in Kansai in the 1950s, putting it in the context of progressive centralization in Tokyo.

Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Ripley, Eddie

Eddie Ripley gives an account of his efforts to study Japanese and of his early experiences as a vice-consul in Yokohama in the late 1950s and '60s.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VIII
Author: Nish, Ian

Edward Grey's (1862-1933) served as Foreign Secretary for a decade, setting a record for length of service. Through looking at his writings and minutes, the impressions of his closest officials and the impressions of Japanese diplomats, this essay uncovers the thinking which shaped his policy-making. 

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VI
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

Edward Heath (1916-2005) was the first British Prime Minister to make an official visit to Japan. This essay details Heath's 1972 visit and its aftermath.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IX
Author: Buckley, Roger

This essay details Ernest Bevin's (1881-1951) role in Britain's post war attitudes and policies towards occupied Japan at the start of the Cold War, as Britain strived to remain a global power and public oppinion of Japan remained poor.

Book: Britain and Japan 1859-1991: Themes and Personalities
Author: Kornicki, Peter

Detailing Sir Ernest Satow's (1843-1929) diplomatic and scholarly career, including his time as head of the British Mission in Japan.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IX
Author: Pilcher, John

This essay contains a perceptive amd amusing account of EXPO '70 at Osaka, as well as Britain's involvement in the proceedings.

Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Ashton-Gwatkin, Frank

Novelist Frank Ashton-Gwatkin revisited Japan for the first time after the war in 1974. In this chapter he recalls his first experiences of Japan, where he worked for the Japan Consular Service in 1913.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VIII
Author: Best, Antony

Although G.E. Morrison (1862-1920) never visited Japan or spoke Japanese, his journalistic efforts had a great impact on British public opinion over the relationship with Japan. This essay assesses his career and influence.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume V
Author: Gotō-Shibata, Harumi

This portrait provides an account and assessment of Hayashi Gonsuke (1860-1939) as Japanese Ambassador to Britain, and his efforts to keep relations between the two nations as amicable as possible.

Book: Japanese Envoys in Britain 1862-1964: A Century of Diplomatic Exchange
Author: Gotō-Shibata, Harumi

This portrait provides an account and assessment of Hayashi Gonsuke (1860-1939) as Japanese Ambassador to Britain, and his efforts to keep relations between the two nations as amicable as possible.

Book: Britain and Japan 1859-1991: Themes and Personalities
Author: Nish, Ian

Profiling the involvement of Hayashi Tadasu (1850-1913) in the formation of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance as well as looking more broadly at his political appointments, from secretary to the Iwakura Mission to promotion to the London legation. This article also details Hayashi's scholarly achievements as a writer and translator. 

Book: Japanese Envoys in Britain 1862-1964: A Century of Diplomatic Exchange
Author: Nish, Ian

Profiling the involvement of Hayashi Tadasu (1850-1913) in his political appointments from secretary to the Iwakura Mission to promotion to the London legation. This article also details Hayashi's scholarly achievements as a writer and translator. 

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume III
Author: Itoh Keiko

Hisaakira Kanō's (1886-1963) family rode the tide of a rapidly changing Japan, being open to Western ways and modern thinking, but responding in ways that were rooted in his traditional samurai background.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IV
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

Hugh Fraser (1837-1894) presided over one of the most significant developments in Western relations with Japan, the replacement of the 'unequal' treaty originally signed in 1858. This essay surveys his involvement with the Japanese political scene.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

Hugh Fraser (1837-1894) presided over one of the most significant developments in Western relations with Japan, the replacement of the 'unequal' treaties originally signed in 1858. This essay surveys his involvement with the Japanese political scene.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VI
Author: O'Connor, Peter

This essay provides an account of the life and career of journalist Hugh Byas (1875-1945), in particular his writing on Japan's interbellum political development.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume I
Author: Nish, Ian

This essay considers the dual aspects of Frank Ashton-Gwatkin's (1889-1976) life: diplomat and author, and his affection for, and understanding of, Japan.

Book: Britain and Japan 1859-1991: Themes and Personalities
Author: Buckley, Roger

As the first British Ambassador to Japan after the War, Esler Dening (1897-1977) was the central figure in Anglo-Japanese relations at a time when British opinion was distinctly anti-Japanese.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VI
Author: Koyama Noboru

Inagaki Manjirō combined the desire to embrace Western ideas and Japan's imperial ambitions during the Meiji era. This essay details his life and diplomatic career, providing an overall analysis of both.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VII
Author: Cobbing, Andrew

This essay charts the controversial life and political career of Inoue Kaoru (1836-1915) of the Chōshū Five and one of the most powerful figures of the Meiji period. A man who epitomized the world of the oligarchs; the immense power wielded by a select few.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume V
Author: Nish, Ian

Inouye Katsunosuke was responsible for steering Anglo-Japanese (1861-1929) relations at a very difficult period in world history during the First World War. This essay details how he coped in a way that attracted great respect. 

Book: Japanese Envoys in Britain 1862-1964: A Century of Diplomatic Exchange
Author: Nish, Ian

Inouye Katsunosuke (1861-1929) was responsible for steering Anglo-Japanese relations during the First World War, a very difficult period in world history. This essay details how he coped in a way which attracted great respect. 

Book: Japanese Envoys in Britain 1862-1964: A Century of Diplomatic Exchange
Author: Hotta-Lister, Ayako

Ayako Hotta- Lister's Interlude on life in the London legation including the social events and activities that many Japanese diplomats enjoyed.

Book: Japanese Envoys in Britain 1862-1964: A Century of Diplomatic Exchange
Author: Yoshida Yuki

In this interlude extracts from Mme Yoshida Yuki's memoir, Whispering Leaves in Grosvenor Square, are presented as snapshots of life in the London Embassy. 

Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

This chapter puts the individual accounts included within Japan Experiences into the context of Anglo-Japanese post-war relations.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh
Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Nish, Ian

Ian Nish's Introduction to Part II of British Envoys to Japan: From the Alliance to Estrangement. .

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Hoare, James Edward

J. E. Hoare's Introduction to Part IV: Scholar Diplomats and Consuls. 

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Lowe, Peter

Peter Lowe's Introduction to Part III of British Envoys in Japan: The Post-war Years.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume III
Author: Cobbing, Andrew

Itō Hirobumi (1841-1909) was Japan's first cabinet prime minister, and this essay asseses the influence of his time as a student in Britain on his career in Imperial Japan.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VIII
Author: Cobbing, Andrew

Iwakura Tomomi's (1825-83) tremendous energy and revolutionary zeal made him a central figure in the Meiji regime. This essay recounts his role in bringing about the Meiji period and subsequent task of presenting the state to the outside world, including as Ambassador to the UK.

Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Figgess, John

Diplomat John Figgess was among the first of the British contingent to arrive in Tokyo in 1945 and in this chapter he describes his arrival and his work in Japan.

Book: Japanese Envoys in Britain 1862-1964: A Century of Diplomatic Exchange
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

Detailing the various Japanese envoys sent to Britain during the ten year period of 1862-72, including the Bakufu mission and several prominent figures.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume II
Author: Nish, Ian

Dubbed a 'master of the various problems of our Far Eastern Ally', John Harrington Gubbins (1852-1929) enjoyed a remarkable and significant diplomatic career in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Nish, Ian

Detailing John Harrington Gubbins's (1852-1929) long relationship with Japan, beginning as a student interpretor with the Far East Consular Service through to dealings with the British Legation in Japan. 

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VI
Author: Ruxton, Ian

This essay provides an account of the life and career of Joseph Longford (1849-1925), one of the forgotten scholars of the Japan service.

Book: Japanese Envoys in Britain 1862-1964: A Century of Diplomatic Exchange
Author: Nish, Ian

Katō Takaaki (1860-1926) spent a quarter of his career overseas and was foreign minister four times, combining diplomatic service with high office in Tokyo. Since his only overseas postings were in Britian he occupies a special place in Anglo-Japanese relations.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IV
Author: Nish, Ian

Since his only overseas postings were in Britain, Katō Takaaki (1860-1929) occupies a special place in the diplomacy of Anglo-Japanese relations. This essay documents his remarkable record as diplomat and foreign minister.

Book: Japanese Envoys in Britain 1862-1964: A Century of Diplomatic Exchange
Author: Nish, Ian

This article profiles the little-known figure of Kawase Masataka (1840-1919) who, aside from being known as the longest-serving envoy to Britain, remains a shadowy figure to many historians of the nineteenth century. 

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume V
Author: Nish, Ian

This portrait considers the diplomatic career of Komura Jūtarō as foreign minister and later ambassador to Britain.

Book: Japanese Envoys in Britain 1862-1964: A Century of Diplomatic Exchange
Author: Nish, Ian

This portrait considers the diplomatic career of Komura Jūtarō (1855-1911) as foreign minister and later ambassador to Britain.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VIII
Author: Hoare, James Edward

This portait gives an account of the activities of the Japan Consular Service outside of Japan in Korea, Taiwan, and Manchuria (then parts of the Japanese Empire), and how they paved the way for the 1943 Eden reforms which ended the distinction between the British diplomatic and consular services.

Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Britton, Dorothy

Dorothy Britton was born in Japan before the war and returned there during the Occupation. This chapter gives an account of her life as a bridge between Japanese and English cultures.

Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Pinnell, Alan

Alan Pinnell's diplomatic career in Japan spanned some twenty years, from the late 1960s to the late '80s. Here he picks out some of the most memorable moments from his time in Japan, starting with his time as a language student and culminating with the visit of the Prince and Princess of Wales in 1986, via his time in the commercial department.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume II
Author: Blacker, Carmen

Before his unfortunate infatuation with conman Thomas Lake Harris, Laurence Oliphant (1858-88) made two visits to Japan, each time leaving a fascinating account of his adventures. This essay details those colourful adventures, both personal and diplomatic.

Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Mayall, Lees

Lees Mayall was based in Japan from 1958 to 1961, tasked with keeping an eye on the Japanese Government's new 'American-imposed democracy'. This chapter comprises extracts from his memoir Fireflies in Amber, in which he describes his reactions to Japan.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VIII
Author: Dobson, Sebastian

The death of Everard Calthrop (1876-1915) on the Western Front on 19 December 1915 cut short a career which had already done much to increase mutual awareness between the British and Japanese armies since 1902. This essay charts the human impact of the First World War on Anglo-Japanese reltions.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume V
Author: Nish, Ian

This portrait considers Lord Curzon's (1859-1925) two distinct phases of contact with Japan: first as the Foreign Office spokesman in the House of Commons, then later as Foreign Secretary.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IX
Author: Cobbing, Andrew

Lord Granville's (1815-1891) career in the Foreign Office brough him into close contact with Japan, although he never visited the country himself. He was in office during some key episodes in Japan's attempts to revise the Unequal, or Ansei, Treaties.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume V
Author: Best, Antony

This essay discusses the involvement of Lord Hankey and R.A. Butler in the 'appeasement' of Japan and their attempts to bring about a rapprochement and stem the descent towards war.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VII
Author: Nish, Ian

This essay recounts Lord Rosebery's (1847-1929) role in Anglo-Japanese relations in the late 1800s to the early 1900s, including ultimately futile diplomatic efforts to bring about the end of the Sino-Japanese war.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VIII
Author: Otte, Thomas G.

Lord Salisbury (1830-1903) dominated British foreign policy for the better part of a quarter of a century at the close of the Victorian era, serving four times as Foreign Secretary and thrice Prime Minister. This essay sketches his attitudes towards Japan and analyses the emergence of Japan as a major power in the evolution of Anglo-Japanese relations.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IV
Author: Best, Antony

Initially an ambassador for British aviation and friend of Japan, Lord Sempill (1893-1965) ended his career in disgrace having received payments for providing Japan with information during the Second World War.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

Detailing Lt Colonel Edward St John Neale's (1812-1866) time in charge of the British Legation in Japan during Sir Rutherford Alcock's time of leave. This article appraises Neale's actions in response to the Namamugi incident, the second Tōzenji incident and the bombardment of Kagoshima during a turbulent time in Anglo-Japanese affairs. 

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume I
Author: Nish, Ian

This essay recounts the diplomatic career of Sir Claude MacDonald (1852-1915) in Japan in the early 20th century - a highpoint in Anglo-Japanese relations.

Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Piggot, Major General F.S.G.

F.S.G Piggott was one of a small number of japanophiles left in post-war Britain, preferring to overlook the worst excesses of Japan's pre-war leaders. This chapter details his nostalgic view of life in pre-war Japan.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VIII
Author: Best, Antony

This essay details the miltary and diplomatic career of Major-General F.S.G. Piggott (1883-1966), whose efforts to secure peace and improve relations between Japan and Britain were fatally clouded by an uncritical love for Japan. Following the Pacific War he devoted his life to the restoration of Anglo-Japanese friendship.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VIII
Author: Nish, Ian

Makino Shinken (1861-1949) was a distinguished diplomat and a man whom Britain thought could be trusted in foreign affairs between their two nations. Although he only served briefly in the UK, during his time as a delegate to the Paris Peace Conference he was much involved with British statesmen and British thinking.

Book: Britain and Japan 1859-1991: Themes and Personalities
Author: Pardoe, Jon

This chapter details Malcolm Kennedy's (1895-1935) time in Japan as an army officer sent to study Japanese while attached to a Japanese army unit, his subsequent work at Shell Oil, and his stance as an apologist in the build up to the Second World War.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IX
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

Margaret Thatcher (1925-2013) played a significant role in promoting Japanese manufacturing investment in Britain and opening up the Japanese markets, and ensured that Britain was no longer seen as suffering from what the Japanese called eikokubyō (the English disease).

Book: Japanese Envoys in Britain 1862-1964: A Century of Diplomatic Exchange
Author: Nish, Ian

Matsudaira Tsuneo (1877-1949) was the longest serving ambassador to the Court of St James, and brought continuity to Anglo-Japanese relations at a time of political instability in Japan.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume V
Author: Kuramatsu, Tadashi

This essay recounts how Matsui Keishirō (1868-1946), in his many roles, including as Ambassador in London, was involved at numerous important turning points in the history of Japanese external relations.

Book: Japanese Envoys in Britain 1862-1964: A Century of Diplomatic Exchange
Author: Kuramatsu Tadashi

This essay recounts how Matsui Keishirō (1868-1946) was involved at numerous important turning points in the history of Japanese external relations as both Vice-Minister for Foreign Affairs, one of the chief delegates at the Paris Peace Conference, Minister for Foreign Affairs and Ambassador to Britain.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume II
Author: Hanaoka Sosuke

A Japanese account of the Anglo-Japanese Commercial Treaty.

Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Baker-Bates, Merrick

Merrick Baker-Bates was first a diplomatic service language student in Japan before becoming Commercial Counsellor. Having transferred to commerce for four years he subsequently returned to the diplomatic service as Consul General in LA. Here he describes his various lives in Japan, with particular reference to his time as a language student, the shift in emphasis in the 1960s to promoting British exports, and to his time as General Manager of Cornes and Company.

Book: Japanese Envoys in Britain 1862-1964: A Century of Diplomatic Exchange
Author: Nish, Ian

This portrait charts the political career of Mori Arinori (1847-1889), a Meiji statesman whose time in Britain played a significant role in his move from liberalism to conservatism.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IV
Author: Cobbing, Andrew

This portrait charts the political career of Mori Arinori (1847-89), a Meiji statesman whose time in Britain played a significant role in his move from liberalism to conservatism.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VII
Author: Robinson, Eleanor

Nakai Hiromu (1838-94) went by many names, and played an important, but largely forgotten, part in Anglo-Japanese relations. This essay details his career and attitudes towards both his own culture and British culture.

Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Barrington, Nicholas

Nicholas Barrington described himself as not a Japanese specialist, but an admirer. Here he recalls his time as Head of Chancery in Japan.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VI
Author: Nish, Ian

Nitobe Inazō (1862-1933) was Japan's first international civil servant at the League of Nations. This essay deals with Nitobe’s experiences in the secretariat of the League during its early days in London.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh
Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh
Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh
Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Parker, Peter

The importance of attracting capital investment to Britain was increasingly recognised by British governments from the 1970s onwards. Businessman Peter Parker became closely involved with Japanese investment in Britain. Here he recounts his later experiences with Japan and considers the future.

Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Purvis, Phillida

Phillida Purvis lived in Japan during the 1980s and experienced a number of different 'incarnations', as a student, diplomat, teacher of international relations, wife and mother. Here she picks out themes from her life as an expatriate in Japan.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

This article considers the very short period that Power Henry Le Poer Trench (1841-99) served as British Minister to Japan before his appointment was cut short by ill health. 

Book: Japanese Envoys in Britain 1862-1964: A Century of Diplomatic Exchange
Author: Nish, Ian
Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VI
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

Shortly before his resignation as Prime Minister in 1954 Yoshida Shigeru visited Britain. This essay examines the political controversy surrounding Yoshida's visit, as well as the visit itself and an assessment of its success.

Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Ellingworth, Dick, and Brian Hitch

The pre-war Japan Consular Service sent selected new entrants each year to study Japanese, creating a corps of Japanese-speaking consuls. The Foreign Office realised that Japanese-speaking officers would be needed after the war in the embassy, and in consular posts in Japan, and so revived the practice in 1951. In this chapter Dick Ellingworth and Brian Hitch describe the system.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Dening, Esler; Geoffrey Hudson; and Richard Storry

Sir Esler Dening looks back on his time in post-war Japan.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VII
Author: Best, Antony

Austin (1863-1937) and Neville Chamberlain (1869-1940) played an important role in British public life, and particularly in the formation of foreign policy. This essay investigates Japanese perceptions and interpretations of their careers.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VII
Author: Weste, John

Malcolm MacDonald (1901-81) presided over an era of Anglo-Japanese relations during which he was forced to consider Japan's position post Second World War and its impact upon the British Empire. This essay acknowledges his relative ambivelance towards Japan, but also his key role in diplomacy with the country.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IX
Author: Jack, Stuart

This essay charts the way in which discriminatory taxes on Scotch Whisky were tackled and overcome during the 1980s.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume II
Author: Best, Antony

Shigemitsu Mamoru (1887-1957) served as Ambassador to Britain from 1938-41, and his earlier career was also  intertwined with the UK. This essay offers an assessment of Shigemitsu Mamoru's role in Japanese diplomacy as a hugely influential but nonetheless difficult to categorise figure.

Book: Japanese Envoys in Britain 1862-1964: A Century of Diplomatic Exchange
Author: Best, Antony

Shigemitsu Mamoru (1887-1957) served as Ambassador to Britain from 1938-41, and his earlier career was also intertwined with the UK. This essay offers an assessment of Shigemitsu Mamoru's role in Japanese diplomacy as a hugely influential but nonetheless difficult to categorise figure.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IX
Author: Tokumoto Eiichiro

This portrait charts the life and influence of the complicated and enigmatic Shirasu Jirō (1902-1985), described here as 'a symbol of his time' having lived through some of the best and worst episodes of Anglo-Japanese relations. During his life, he was a student at Cambridge, journalist, businessman, farmer and a crucial link between the Japanese government and the office of the Supreme Commander Allied Powers.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume I
Author: Lowe, Peter

Sir Alvary Gascgoine (1946-1951) headed the British liaison mission in Tokyo from 1946 to '51, and was responsible for establishing postive relations with General Douglas MacArthur.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Lowe, Peter

Sir Alvary Gascgoine (1946-1951) headed the British liaison mission in Tokyo from 1946 to '51, and was responsible for establishing postive relations with General Douglas MacArthur.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IX
Author: Best, Antony

This portrait seeks to assess Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden's (1897-1977) attitude towards Britain's former ally and contemporary adversary, Japan, as well as detail his efforts to rebuild relations in the wake of the bitter legacy of the Pacific War.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VII
Author: Nish, Ian

Cecil Rice (1861-1918) played an important role in the Russo-Japanese War and subsequently served as Ambassador in Washington during the First World War. This chapter charts his diplomatic career through times of peace and of war, outlining his affection for and dealings with Japan.

Book: Britain and Japan 1859-1991: Themes and Personalities
Author: Smith, Dennis

Sir Charles Eliot (1862-1931) became British Ambassador at Tokyo in 1919. This chapter details his life and career as an often overlooked figure in Anglo-Japanese relations, who made significant contributions to scholarship and whose time as ambassador coincided with the end of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Smith, Dennis

This profile considers the career of Sir Charles Eliot (1862-1931) including his contributions to the field of oriental scholarship and his time as ambassador, overseeing the end of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance. 

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Nish, Ian

This essay recounts the diplomatic career of Sir Claude MacDonald (1852-1915) in Japan in the early 20th century - a highpoint in Anglo-Japanese relations.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

Sir Daniel Lascelles (1902-1967) was an unlikely appointment as British ambassador to Japan having no connections or knowledge of the Japanse language, culture or people. This profile details his ineffectual time as ambassador. 

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Kornicki, Peter

This article details Sir Ernest Mason Satow's (1843-1929) further pursuits in Japan between 1873 to 1884. 

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IV
Author: Ruxton, Ian

Sir Ernest Satow (1843-1929) served as head of the British Mission in Japan from 1895 to 1900, and this essay uses his diaries to arrive at an understanding of his chief concerns during his time in Tokyo.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Ruxton, Ian

Sir Ernest Satow (1843-1929), generally regarded as the best qualified official and the most outstanding scholar of Japanese to have been appointed Head of Mission to Japan, served in this rol from 1895 to 1900, and this essay uses his diaries to arrive at an understanding of his chief concerns during his time in Tokyo.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Dening, Esler
Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Buckley, Roger

Concerning Sir Esler Dening (1897-1977) as a main figure in Anglo-Japanese relations following the ending of the Pacific War, at a time when British opinion was anti-Japanese. 

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IX
Author: Otte, Thomas G.

Despite having little interest in, or ever visiting Japan, diplomat Francis Bertie, in his role as Assistant Under-secretary at the Foreign Office, was instrumental in preparing the Anglo-Japanese Alliance. This portrait assesses the significance of this contribution as it established the broad parameters of British policy in East Asia for the next two decades.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IV
Author: Nish, Ian

Rather than assessing Sir Francis Lindley (1872-1950) as a diplomat, this portrait provides an assessment of his character through the lens of his second term in Japan and as chairman of the Council of the Japan Society of London

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Nish, Ian

Rather than assessing Sir Francis Lindley (1872-1950) as a diplomat, this portrait provides an assessment of his character through the lens of his second term in Japan and as chairman of the Council of the Japan Society of London

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VII
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

Sir Francis Ottiwell Adams (1826-89) was Secretary of the Legation in Edo from 1868 to 1872. This essay shows how his career in the legation was an important one in the history of modern Japan, having occurred at a time of much social upheaval.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IV
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

This portrait considers the diplomatic career of Sir Francis Plunkett (1835-1907), British Minister at Tokyo from 1884-87, particularly in relation to the attempted revision of the 'unequal treaties'.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

This portrait considers the diplomatic career of Sir Francis Plunkett (1835-1907), British Minister at Tokyo from 1884-87, particularly in relation to the attempted revision of the 'unequal treaties'.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

Concerning Sir Francis Rundall's (1908-1987) time as ambassador to Japan overseeing the confrontation between Indonesia and Malaysia in 1963, the Olympic games in 1964 and the British Exhibition at Harumi in 1965.

Book: Britain and Japan 1859-1991: Themes and Personalities
Author: Daniels, Gordon

This profile considers equally Sir George Sansom's (1883-1965) career as a diplomat, in which he pioneered the serious study of the Japanese economy, and historian. 

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Daniels, Gordon

This profile considers equally Sir George Sansom's (1883-1965) career as a diplomat, scholar and historian. 

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume I
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

This portrait reflects on the diplomatic career of Sir Harry Parkes (1828-1885) from 1865 to 1883, a period of unprecedented revolutionary change.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

This portrait reflects on the diplomatic career of Sir Harry Parkes (1828-1885) from 1865 to 1883, a period of unprecedented revolutionary change, assessing both his personal characteristics and his diplomatic achievements.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VIII
Author: Roberts, Christopher

Sir Hiram Shaw Wilkinson (1840-1926) was one of the leading personalities in the British extra-territorial regime in Japan. He was a member of the Japan Consular Service, an independent practising barrister and the last Judge of Her Britannic Majesty's Court for Japan.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume III
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

This essay provides an account of the life and career of Sir John Figgess (1909-97), businessman, intelligence officer, diplomat and art expert.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume III
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

This essay describes how Sir John Pilcher (1912-90), as British ambassador in Japan between 1967 and 1972, helped to revive Anglo-Japanese friendship after the Second World War and was long remembered with affection both in Japan and by his friends and colleagues.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

This essay describes how Sir John Pilcher (1912-1990), as British ambassador in Japan between 1967 and 1972, helped to revive Anglo-Japanese friendship after the Second World War and was long remembered with affection both in Japan and by his friends and colleagues.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IX
Author: Best, Antony

This portrait offers an analysis of Sir John Simon's (1873-1954) flawed role in the foreign office and in Anglo-Japanese relations as a whole as they pertained to the Manchurian crisis.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IV
Author: Gotō-Shibata, Harumi

 Sir John Tilley (1869-1951) was ambassador in Tokyo from 1926-31, and this essay covers his time in office and limited achievements.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Gotō-Shibata, Harumi

 Sir John Tilley (1869-1951) was ambassador in Tokyo from 1926-31, and this essay covers his time in office and limited achievements.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VII
Author: Barr, Dugald

This essay provides an account of Julian Ridsdale's (1915-2004) interest in Japan and politics, and how these two came together in his long service to Anglo-Japanese Parliamentary relations.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VII
Author: Steeds, David

Intertwined throughout Miles Lampson's (1880-1964) diplomatic career were dealings with and a genuine affection for Japan. This biography traces those dealings, beginning with his involvement in the 1906 Garter Mission, and provides a portrait of this British diplomatic figure.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Whitehead, John

This portrait details Sir Oscar Morland's (1904-1980) career and long association with Japan, as part of the Far East Consular Service and later as British ambassador to Japan. 

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IV
Author: Best, Anthony

The period in which Sir Robert Clive (1877-1948) was Ambassador to Japan (1934-37) has been the subject of much study, but the man himself remains a mystery. This essay contends that this was because there was little friction between the Embassy and London despite this being a particularly trying time.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Best, Anthony

The period in which Sir Robert Clive (1877-1948) was Ambassador to Japan (1934-37) has been the subject of much study, but the man himself remains a mystery. This essay contends that this was because there was little friction between the Embassy and London at this difficult time.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume I
Author: Best, Antony

This essay charts the diplomatic career of Robert Craigie (1937-1941) in Japan, one of the most controversial subjects in the history of inter-war Anglo-Japanese relations.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Best, Antony

This essay charts the diplomatic career of Robert Craigie (1937-1941) in Japan, one of the most controversial subjects in the history of inter-war Anglo-Japanese relations.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VII
Author: Lowe, Peter

Robert Scott’s (1905-82) career goes some way to illustrate Japan’s impact on the world in the 20th Century, particularly with regard to British and American foreign policy in South East Asia following the Second World War.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume II
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

A reassessment of the career of Sir Rutherford Alcock (1809-1897), the first British Minister to Japan from 1859-64.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

A reassessment of the career of Sir Rutherford Alcock (1809-1897), the first British Minister to Japan from 1859-64.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume II
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

Vere Redman (1901-1975) worked, throughout his career as a journalist, press attaché, and in the British Ministry of Information, to contribute to understanding between British and Japanese. This essay recounts his journalistic efforts as they relate to Anglo-Japanese relations.

Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Redman, Vere

Vere Redman was a notable eccentric, but devoted to Anglo-Japanese relations. This chapter comprises extracts from a talk given by Redman, 'Things I have learned in and From Japan', covering both the pre- and post-war.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IV
Author: Lowe, Peter

Sir William Conyngham Greene (1854-1934) assumed his diplomatic posts in Pretoria and later Japan at times of accelerating tension and turbulence in the and late 19th early 20th centuries. This essay charts his career through both of these times.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Lowe, Peter

Sir William Conyngham Greene (1854-1934) assumed his diplomatic posts in Pretoria and later Japan at times of accelerating tension and turbulence in the and late 19th early 20th centuries. This essay charts his career through both of these times.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume V
Author: Ruxton, Ian

Despite his being perhaps lesser known than other Meiji era statesmen this essay makes the case of Suematsu Kenchō's (1855-1920) significant contributions in many areas of Japanese politics.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume III
Author: Best, Antony

This portrait considers how Arthur Edwardes emerges as a shadowy and perhaps naive figure on the edge of Anglo-Japanese relations in the build up to the Second World War.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume II
Author: Gray, Robin

This essay recalls the circumstances in which the the Anglo-Japanese Commercial Treaty of 1962 was made and its implications for trade between the two countries.

Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Whitehead, John

In the 1950s the Foreign Office maintained the tradition of sending language students to Japan. Here future Ambassador Tim Whitehead recalls his time, from 1956, as one such student, including his extensive travelling around the country.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

An in-depth account of the build-up to and consequences of the British bombardment of Kagoshima, following the attack on three British by Satsuma retainers near Yokohama.

Book: Japanese Envoys in Britain 1862-1964: A Century of Diplomatic Exchange
Author: Kadota Shōzō

This article traces the establishment of the Japanese embassy in London from 1870 to 1978, including details of some of the pivotal events in the embassy’s history.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume II
Author: Mutsu, Ian

This portrait sketches a history of the Mutsu family, and in particular considers their close ties to Britain and the effect this had on Anglo-Japanese relations.

Book: Britain and Japan 1859-1991: Themes and Personalities
Author: Fukuda Haruko

This chapter considers the career of Admiral Yamanashi Katsunoshin (1877-1967) including his key involvement in the Naval Limitations Treaty and time in the Imperial Japanese Navy. 

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VI
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

This essay provides an account and analysis of The Shōwa Emperor's (Hirohito's) visit to Britain in 1970. It marked the first Japanese state visit to Britian, as well as the first time a Japanese emperor had ever made a visit abroad.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume I
Author: Kiyoshi Ikeda

Tōgō Heihachirō's (1848-1934) naval career was one intimately interlinked with Britain, and this essay charts his illustrious role in international diplomacy and the admiralty of the Japanese Imperial Navy.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume I
Author: Nish, Ian

Matsudaira Tsuneo (1877-1949) was the longest serving ambassador to the Court of St James, and brought continuity to Anglo-Japanese relations at a time of political instability in Japan.

Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Bradley, Clive, and Bill Williamson

Bill Williamson did two separate tours as Atomic Energy Attaché at the British Embassy. His account of working with the Japanese government in the commissioning of the first nuclear power stations in Japan is a reminder of an important and often over-looked facet of Anglo-Japan relations. Clive Bradley meanwhile was Counsellor for Science and Technology in the British Embassy in the 1980s where he was responsible for reporting on scientific and technological developments and for promoting British science and technology.

Book: Britain and Japan 1859-1991: Themes and Personalities
Author: Blacker, Carmen

In this chapter, the lives of Sir Francis Taylor Piggott (1852-1925) and his son F.S.G. Piggott (1883-1966) are detailed in their relation to Japan and involvement with the Japan Society of London. Sir Francis was one of the founders of the Society, and his son was the guiding energy behind its post-war revival.

Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Elston, Chris, and Geoffrey Littler

Before the 1970s there seemed to be little scope for British financial services in the closed Japanese market. Japanese membership of the OECD, however, forced gradual changes, along with internal pressure from Japanese companies wanting access to foreign loans. Here Chris Elston, who joined the British Embassy as Financial Counsellor in 1979 recalls his time as Bank of England representative in Japan, and reflects on both the state of Japan's banking system and general accounting practices in the years leading up to the crisis. Meanwhile, Geoffrey Little of HM Treasury gives an account of negotiations to ensure that Britain kept pace with American financial institutions in Japan.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VIII
Author: Oyama, Mizuo, and Sebastian Dobson

This portait presents the life and military career of Pan-Asianist Utsunomiya Taro (1861-1922), particularly his time in Britain as Japan's military attaché and role during the Russo-Japanese War.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VIII
Author: Trotter, Ann

This essay details the role of William Patrick - Britain's appointed judge - in the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, 1946-48, along with the problems faced by the Tribunal.

Book: Britain and Japan 1859-1991: Themes and Personalities
Author: Kornicki, Peter

This chapter assesses the life of William George Aston (1841-1911), a diplomat and prominent scholar of Japan. Though Aston remains somewhat of a shadowy figure due to the lack of knowledge of his private life, this appraisal details how his scholarly works in the fields of linguistics and religion have stood the test of time.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Kornicki, Peter

This profile details William George Aston's (1841-1911) career in the consular service and his scholarly achievments as a writer of Japanese language learning books. 

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VI
Author: Seki Eiji

The politically active part of Sir Winston Churchill's (1874-1965) life almost coincided with the emergence, decline and rebirth of modern Japan. This essay details Churchill's part in Anglo-Japanese relations both pre and post Second World War.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume II
Author: Nish, Ian

This portrait details the two years Yoshida Shigeru (1878-1941) and Mme Yoshida spent at the London embassy from 1936-38 - a difficult period in Anglo-Japanese relations.

Book: Japanese Envoys in Britain 1862-1964: A Century of Diplomatic Exchange
Author: Nish, Ian

This portrait details the two years Yoshida Shigeru (1878-1967) and Mme Yoshida spent at the London embassy from 1936-38 - a troubling period for both of them as they did what they could to stabilise Anglo-Japanese relations.

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