Japan Society E-Library

Meiji Era

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume III
Author: Kuramatsu Tadashi

This paper focuses on Admiral Viscount Saitō Makoto's (1858-1936) early career when Japan was emerging as a modern state in the Meiji and Taishō periods under the major influence of Britain.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VI
Author: Best, Antony

Following the collapse of the Romanov, Hohenzollerns and Hapsburg powers in 1917-18, Britain's most significant royal relationship was with Imperial Japan. This essay details Court Diplomacy between 1900-41, shedding light on the broader Anglo-Japanese relationship.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VIII
Author: Morton, Robert

A.B. Mitford (1837-1916) led a long, adventurous, and well-connected life. This essay recounts how his time in Japan under Sir Harry Parkes coloured the rest of his life.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume V
Author: Chapman, John W.M.

This portrait consdiers how Admiral Sir John Fisher's (1841-1920) role in Anglo-Japanese naval relations played into a larger theatre of war and diplomacy in Europe and the far East.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VII
Author: Chapman, John W.M.

Sir Thomas Henry Martyn Jerram's (1858-1933) proximity to the China Station shortly before the outbreak of the First World War marks him out as a significant figure in Anglo-Japanese relations.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume II
Author: Checkland, Olive, and Norio, Tamaki

Alexander Allan Shand (1844-1930) taught Japanese bankers the elements of Western banking, auditing and accounting, and later smoothed the way for the Japanese government to borrow on the London money market.

Book: Britain and Japan 1859-1991: Themes and Personalities
Author: Bowring, Richard

Basil Hall Chamberlain (1850-1935) was a writer and prominent Japanologist, inspiring a generation of influential students. In this chapter, his life and career are assessed.  

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume III
Author: Nish, Ian

Though Aoki Shūzō was in many ways a Germanophile, there is a strong current running through his diplomatic career of concern with Britain, particularly with regard to the 'unequal' treaties.

Book: Japanese Envoys in Britain 1862-1964: A Century of Diplomatic Exchange
Author: Nish, Ian

Though Aoki Shūzō (1844-1914) was in many ways a Germanophile, there is a strong current running through his diplomatic career of concern with Britain, particularly with regard to the 'unequal' treaties.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume I
Author: Conte-Helm, Marie

This portrait considers the history of Britain's shipbuilding links with Japan through the firms Armstrong's and Vickers.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VII
Author: Lockyer, Angus

Arthur Groom (1846-1918) is widely consdiered the father of Japanese golf, and this portrait examines his arguably accidental part in the development of modern Japan during the Meiji period.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume III
Author: Nish, Alison

This essay charts Britain's contribution to the development of rugby in Japan, particularly as it relates to sporting activities within educational institutions.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume II
Author: Hoare, James Edward

This portrait provides a detailed account of the establishment and modus operandi of the Japan Consular Service (1859-1941) from the opening of Japan to the end of the Second World War.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Hoare, James Edward

This portrait provides a detailed account of the establishment and modus operandi of the Japan Consular Service (1859-1941) from the opening of Japan to the end of the Second World War.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VIII
Author: Itoh Keiko

This essay puts the introduction of tennis to Japan in the context of British colonialism and Japanese modernisation.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume I
Author: Hoare, James Edward

In laying out an overview of British journalistic efforts and establishments in Meiji Japan, this portrait asks the question, 'What was the importance of the foreign press in Anglo-Japanese relations during the Meiji period?'.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VIII
Author: Roberts, Christopher

The Ansei treaties which followed the 'opening' of Japan in 1859 provided for extra-territorial rights, by which the accused of any treaty power were dealt with by that coutry's own courts. This portrait details the activities of the consular courts from 1859-99.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume I
Author: Ballhatchet, Helen

This essay provides an overview of the missionary efforts of British Christians in the Meiji period, as well as the challenges and nature of the 'mission field' itself.

Book: Britain and Japan 1859-1991: Themes and Personalities
Author: Hunter, Janet

This chapter covers the development of technological education in early Meiji Japan, including a profile of the career of Kikuchi Kyōzō (1859-1942).

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume III
Author: Hoare, James Edward

Captain Francis Brinkley provides the subject of this essay, in particular his journalism and scholarship regarding Japan over his forty year career in the country.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VII
Author: Kabrna, Paul

Cargill Knott (1856-1922) was among a number of foreign specialists invited to Japan by the Meiji Government. During his time in the country, he conducted extensive research in the field of seismology, undertaking a magnetic survey of Japan.

Book: Britain and Japan 1859-1991: Themes and Personalities
Author: Clark, John

This chapter details the life of Charles Wirgman (1835-1891) and his journalistic career in Japan, including as correspondant for the Illustrated London News and the founding of his satirical review the Japan Punch in Yokohoma. Wirgman was a key observer of the opening of the country, having arrived in 1861.

Book: Japanese Envoys in Britain 1862-1964: A Century of Diplomatic Exchange
Author: Nish, Ian

Chinda Sutemi ( 1857-1929) presided over a period in postwar Anglo-Japanese relations where he was responsible for diplomacy at what would later come to be understood as critical junctures in the build up to the Second World War. This essay charts his career through the London Embassy, at the Paris Peace Conference and up to Japan's exit from the League of Nations.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume V
Author: Nish, Ian

Chinda Sutemi (1857-1929) presided over a period in postwar Anglo-Japanese relations where he was responsible for diplomacy at critical junctures. This essay charts his career through the London Embassy, at the Paris Peace Conference and up to Japan's exit from the League of Nations.

Book: Britain and Japan 1859-1991: Themes and Personalities
Author: Hamilton, Valerie

A chronological overview of Anglo-Japanese Relations between 1858-1990. 

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IX
Author: Galbraith, Mike

In late Edo and throughout the Meiji period, British citizens in Japan gathered to play cricket. This essay provides an account of the matches played and personnel involved, as well as the wider attitudes towards the sport amongst Japanese.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VIII
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

This portrait details how Douglas Sladen's (1856-1947) writings did much to popularize Japan among British readers in the early years of the twentieth century.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IV
Author: Herries, Amanda

This portrait considers the significance of two nineteenth-century plant collectors in Japan, Robert Fortune and John Gould Veitch.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume II
Author: Morita Yoshihiko

Despite only being in Japan for a year and a half before his death, Edmund Morel (1841-71) made significant contributions to the modernization of Japan. This portrait details and discusses his engineering efforts in Japan.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IX
Author: Kikuchi Yoshiyuki

Edward Divers (1837-1912) and Robert William Atkinson (1850-1929) were influential in the development of the field of chemistry in Meiji Japan. This essay details their respective contributions, along with their thoughts on Japan.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VII
Author: Kumazawa Eriko

This portrait explores Edward Kinch's (1848-1920) contribution to the development of agricultural chemistry in Japan during the Meiji era, including the first analytical study of soil, fertilizer and crops in Japan. After leaving Japan, Kinch was influential in introducing a number of Japanese foods to the rest of the world.

Book: Britain and Japan 1859-1991: Themes and Personalities
Author: Kornicki, Peter

Detailing Sir Ernest Satow's (1843-1929) diplomatic and scholarly career, including his time as head of the British Mission in Japan.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VIII
Author: Chong, Chin-Sok

This portrait outlines the journalistic career of Ernest Thomas Bethell (1872-1909) in Korea as an opponent of Japan's foreign policy in Asia.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VI
Author: Britton, Dorothy

This essay provides a thorough and tender account of Frank Britton's (1879-1934) life, relations with Japan, and his role in the Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume III
Author: Kornicki, Peter

This essay provides a re-assessment of 'forgotten figure' Frederick Victor Dickins' (1838-1915) career in Japan as a scholar, lawyer and contributor to Japanese Studies.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IV
Author: Dobson, Sebastian

Frederick William Sutton 1832-83 produced some important early photographs documenting Japan in the final years of the shogunate. This essay uses more recent discoveries to chart his life in as an amateur photographer in the Royal Navy.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume III
Author: Tamaki Norio

A writer, journalist and businessman, Fukuzawa Yukichi (1835-1901) made a significant contribution to Meiji Japan, and a personal fortune in the process.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VIII
Author: Best, Antony

Although G.E. Morrison (1862-1920) never visited Japan or spoke Japanese, his journalistic efforts had a great impact on British public opinion over the relationship with Japan. This essay assesses his career and influence.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VII
Author: Kornicki, Peter

General Hamilton's (1853-1947) account of the Russo-Japanese war provides a fascinating insight into Britain's perspective on the conflict and on Japan's military capabilities in general.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VIII
Author: Ono, Ayako

George Henry (1854-1934) and E.A. Hornel (1864-1933) developed a deep appreciation for Japanese art and were heavily involved in its promotion within European artistic circles. This portrait provides an account of their careers within the context of Scotland's involvement in the modernisation of Japan.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume I
Author: Wilkinson, Jane

Scottish Doctor who lived in Japan treating Ainu communities. An amateur archaeologist and anthropologist who discovered evidence of the prehistoric people of Japan.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VIII
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

Portrait painter Hara Bushō (1866-1912) spent three years studying art in London where he became involved with other important Japanese artists and immersed himself in Western art. This portait provides an account of his artistic career and time in Lodnon.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume V
Author: Hotta-Lister, Ayako

Even though journalist Hasegawa Nyozekan's (1875-1969) periods of residence in Britain were short, he wrote about them extensively in the popular press. This essay details his life, and journalistic and philosophical career.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume V
Author: Gotō-Shibata, Harumi

This portrait provides an account and assessment of Hayashi Gonsuke (1860-1939) as Japanese Ambassador to Britain, and his efforts to keep relations between the two nations as amicable as possible.

Book: Japanese Envoys in Britain 1862-1964: A Century of Diplomatic Exchange
Author: Gotō-Shibata, Harumi

This portrait provides an account and assessment of Hayashi Gonsuke (1860-1939) as Japanese Ambassador to Britain, and his efforts to keep relations between the two nations as amicable as possible.

Book: Britain and Japan 1859-1991: Themes and Personalities
Author: Nish, Ian

Profiling the involvement of Hayashi Tadasu (1850-1913) in the formation of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance as well as looking more broadly at his political appointments, from secretary to the Iwakura Mission to promotion to the London legation. This article also details Hayashi's scholarly achievements as a writer and translator. 

Book: Japanese Envoys in Britain 1862-1964: A Century of Diplomatic Exchange
Author: Nish, Ian

Profiling the involvement of Hayashi Tadasu (1850-1913) in his political appointments from secretary to the Iwakura Mission to promotion to the London legation. This article also details Hayashi's scholarly achievements as a writer and translator. 

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume III
Author: Checkland, Olive

This essay considers the important contribution of Henry Dyer to the success of the nascent engineering profession in Japan and to the modernization of the Japanese education system.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IV
Author: Nish, Ian

The subject of this portrait is Henry Faulds' (1834-1930) pioneering medical and missionary work in Japan, as well as his abiding affection for the country and its people.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IV
Author: Higuchi Jirō

This essay details Henry Spencer Palmer's (1838-1893) contributions to Meiji Japan, in particular his construction of waterworks and his letters to the Times in support of treaty revision between Japan and Britain.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IV
Author: Bennett, Terry

This essay considers the photographic career of 'camera artist' Henry George Ponting (1870-1935), arguably the best British photographer to have worked in Japan, especially as it relates to his photographs of Mt. Fuji and other places and people in Japan.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IX
Author: Hirata Yoko

This essay charts the literary and translation efforts of Honma Hisao (1886-1981), particularly in regard to Oscar Wilde; how he looked outward at English literature, inward at Meiji era literature and then combined the two in the comparative study of world literature.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume V
Author: Green, Edwin

This essay details the way in which HSBC was a pioneer and prototype of banking and international finance in nineteenth-century Japan.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IV
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

Hugh Fraser (1837-1894) presided over one of the most significant developments in Western relations with Japan, the replacement of the 'unequal' treaty originally signed in 1858. This essay surveys his involvement with the Japanese political scene.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

Hugh Fraser (1837-1894) presided over one of the most significant developments in Western relations with Japan, the replacement of the 'unequal' treaties originally signed in 1858. This essay surveys his involvement with the Japanese political scene.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VI
Author: Koyama Noboru

Inagaki Manjirō combined the desire to embrace Western ideas and Japan's imperial ambitions during the Meiji era. This essay details his life and diplomatic career, providing an overall analysis of both.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VII
Author: Cobbing, Andrew

This essay charts the controversial life and political career of Inoue Kaoru (1836-1915) of the Chōshū Five and one of the most powerful figures of the Meiji period. A man who epitomized the world of the oligarchs; the immense power wielded by a select few.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume II
Author: Yamamoto Yumiyo

Inoue Masaru (1843-1910) was one of the Choshu five - ambitious young men sent to England to study in 1863. This essay details the significant contribution of Inoue Masaru to the construction of Japanese railways, and the influence of his time and study in Britain on his civic career.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume V
Author: Nish, Ian

Inouye Katsunosuke was responsible for steering Anglo-Japanese (1861-1929) relations at a very difficult period in world history during the First World War. This essay details how he coped in a way that attracted great respect. 

Book: Japanese Envoys in Britain 1862-1964: A Century of Diplomatic Exchange
Author: Nish, Ian

Inouye Katsunosuke (1861-1929) was responsible for steering Anglo-Japanese relations during the First World War, a very difficult period in world history. This essay details how he coped in a way which attracted great respect. 

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh
Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IX
Author: Galbraith, Mike

This essay charts the playing of 'Rugby Football' in Japan, and the clubs established to manage the sport in the country.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume I
Author: Barr, Pat

This portrait details traveller and writer Isabella Bird's (1831-1904) deep fondness for Japan.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume III
Author: Cobbing, Andrew

Itō Hirobumi (1841-1909) was Japan's first cabinet prime minister, and this essay asseses the influence of his time as a student in Britain on his career in Imperial Japan.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VIII
Author: Cobbing, Andrew

Iwakura Tomomi's (1825-83) tremendous energy and revolutionary zeal made him a central figure in the Meiji regime. This essay recounts his role in bringing about the Meiji period and subsequent task of presenting the state to the outside world, including as Ambassador to the UK.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume II
Author: Nakami Mari

This essay details the scholarly and journalistic efforts of J.W. Robertson-Scott (1866-1962), who wrote on Japanese foreign affairs, rural communities and agriculture during the First World War.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume III
Author: Pedlar, Neil

James Alfred Ewing taught physics in Meiji Japan, and helped to inspire the country's first generation of modern physicists.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume III
Author: Koyama Noburu

This portrait discusses James Summers' (1828-91) contributions to the teaching of English Literature in Japan, along with a discussion of his work in relation to the Taisei Shimbun - one of the first Japanese language newspapers published outside of Japan.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume I
Author: Norio Tamaki

Taking Count Matsukata Masayoshi as a key figure, this portrait details Japanese efforts to attain both the Gold Standard and the respect of the London financial circles.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume II
Author: Oba, Sadao

This essay gives an overview to some of the prominent businessmen who spent significant parts of their careers in Britain.

Book: Japanese Envoys in Britain 1862-1964: A Century of Diplomatic Exchange
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

Detailing the various Japanese envoys sent to Britain during the ten year period of 1862-72, including the Bakufu mission and several prominent figures.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VI
Author: Koyama Noboru

This essay provides an account of Japanese tattooists interactions with the British Royal Family during the Meiji period.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume II
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

Even though John Batchelor (1855-1945) was not an expert in linguistics, ethnology or folklore, his contributions to the understanding of the Ainu people is nonetheless significant. This essay details his missionary career and a life devoted to the Ainu people.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume II
Author: Nish, Ian

Dubbed a 'master of the various problems of our Far Eastern Ally', John Harrington Gubbins (1852-1929) enjoyed a remarkable and significant diplomatic career in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Nish, Ian

Detailing John Harrington Gubbins's (1852-1929) long relationship with Japan, beginning as a student interpretor with the Far East Consular Service through to dealings with the British Legation in Japan. 

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VIII
Author: Dobson, Sebastian

This portrait outlines John Mathews James' (1838-1908) involvement in the modernisation of the Japanese Navy, along with his impact on the toponymy of Tokyo.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume V
Author: O'Connor, Peter

This essay details the journalistic career and media entrepreneurialism within Japan of John Russell Kennedy.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IX
Author: Imamura Akira

Alongside his contribution to the modernisation of music performance and education in Japan, John William Fenton is known as a composer of the first Japanese national anthem, Kimigayo. This portrait considers his career as a bandmaster in the British and then Japanese armed forces.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IX
Author: Nish, Ian

Although in his early years Admiral Katō Hiroharu (1870-1939) admired Britain, in his later career he understandably placed Japan's naval interests ahead of any residual affection for the country. This essay considers the early part of his career, during which he played a significant role in Anglo-Japanese naval cooperation.

Book: Japanese Envoys in Britain 1862-1964: A Century of Diplomatic Exchange
Author: Nish, Ian

Katō Takaaki (1860-1926) spent a quarter of his career overseas and was foreign minister four times, combining diplomatic service with high office in Tokyo. Since his only overseas postings were in Britian he occupies a special place in Anglo-Japanese relations.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IV
Author: Nish, Ian

Since his only overseas postings were in Britain, Katō Takaaki (1860-1929) occupies a special place in the diplomacy of Anglo-Japanese relations. This essay documents his remarkable record as diplomat and foreign minister.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume III
Author: Checkland, Olive

Though he was initially an isolationist, the great artist Kawanabe Kyōsai (1832-89) had many dealings with Europeans such as Josiah Conder, and his work was much appreciated by British connoisseurs of Japanese art. This essay charts his life and tutelage of British artists in the Meiji period.

Book: Japanese Envoys in Britain 1862-1964: A Century of Diplomatic Exchange
Author: Nish, Ian

This article profiles the little-known figure of Kawase Masataka (1840-1919) who, aside from being known as the longest-serving envoy to Britain, remains a shadowy figure to many historians of the nineteenth century. 

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume V
Author: Nish, Ian

This portrait considers the diplomatic career of Komura Jūtarō as foreign minister and later ambassador to Britain.

Book: Japanese Envoys in Britain 1862-1964: A Century of Diplomatic Exchange
Author: Nish, Ian

This portrait considers the diplomatic career of Komura Jūtarō (1855-1911) as foreign minister and later ambassador to Britain.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume II
Author: Murray, Paul

The outstanding Western interpreter of Meiji Japan, Lafcadio Hearn (1850-1904), provides the subject for this portrait; his time in America, Japan, and his relationships to his contemporaries.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IV
Author: Ashmore, Sonia

Lasenby Liberty (1843-1917) presided over his company at a time when Japanese luxury goods were hugely popular in Britain. This essay considers Liberty in relation to japonsime, as well as his visits to Japan to oversee business.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IX
Author: Cobbing, Andrew

Lord Granville's (1815-1891) career in the Foreign Office brough him into close contact with Japan, although he never visited the country himself. He was in office during some key episodes in Japan's attempts to revise the Unequal, or Ansei, Treaties.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume I
Author: Hunter, Janet

This essay considers the impact of Maejima Hisoka's (1835-1919) visit to Britain in the early 1870s, after which he founded Japan's postal service.

Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Piggot, Major General F.S.G.

F.S.G Piggott was one of a small number of japanophiles left in post-war Britain, preferring to overlook the worst excesses of Japan's pre-war leaders. This chapter details his nostalgic view of life in pre-war Japan.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VIII
Author: Nish, Ian

Makino Shinken (1861-1949) was a distinguished diplomat and a man whom Britain thought could be trusted in foreign affairs between their two nations. Although he only served briefly in the UK, during his time as a delegate to the Paris Peace Conference he was much involved with British statesmen and British thinking.

Book: Japanese Envoys in Britain 1862-1964: A Century of Diplomatic Exchange
Author: Nish, Ian

Matsudaira Tsuneo (1877-1949) was the longest serving ambassador to the Court of St James, and brought continuity to Anglo-Japanese relations at a time of political instability in Japan.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume V
Author: Kuramatsu, Tadashi

This essay recounts how Matsui Keishirō (1868-1946), in his many roles, including as Ambassador in London, was involved at numerous important turning points in the history of Japanese external relations.

Book: Japanese Envoys in Britain 1862-1964: A Century of Diplomatic Exchange
Author: Kuramatsu Tadashi

This essay recounts how Matsui Keishirō (1868-1946) was involved at numerous important turning points in the history of Japanese external relations as both Vice-Minister for Foreign Affairs, one of the chief delegates at the Paris Peace Conference, Minister for Foreign Affairs and Ambassador to Britain.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VIII
Author: Horner, Libby

Matsukata Kōjirō (1865-1950) was a successful and innovative industrialist, but this portrait details his time in London, his career as an art collector and the establishment of the first museum of Western art in Japan.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume I
Author: Blacker, Carmen

This essay considers the remarkable scholarly career of the brilliant but eccentric polymath Minakata Kumagusu (1867-1941), an expert in natural history, folklore and classicism, as well as an assessment of the significance of his time in London to his work.

Book: Japanese Envoys in Britain 1862-1964: A Century of Diplomatic Exchange
Author: Nish, Ian

This portrait charts the political career of Mori Arinori (1847-1889), a Meiji statesman whose time in Britain played a significant role in his move from liberalism to conservatism.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IV
Author: Cobbing, Andrew

This portrait charts the political career of Mori Arinori (1847-89), a Meiji statesman whose time in Britain played a significant role in his move from liberalism to conservatism.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VII
Author: Robinson, Eleanor

Nakai Hiromu (1838-94) went by many names, and played an important, but largely forgotten, part in Anglo-Japanese relations. This essay details his career and attitudes towards both his own culture and British culture.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IV
Author: Ohta Akiko

This portrait details the significance of Nakamura Masanao's (1832-91) encounter with Victorian Britain and his subsequent translation into Japanese of Samuel Smiles' Self Help.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume III
Author: Tsunematsu, Sammy I.

This essay seeks to explore how Natsume Sōseki's (1867-1916) time in London influenced his literary works and world view, particularly with regard to the pre-Raphaelite movement.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VI
Author: Nish, Ian

Nitobe Inazō (1862-1933) was Japan's first international civil servant at the League of Nations. This essay deals with Nitobe’s experiences in the secretariat of the League during its early days in London.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume V
Author: Hara Fujiko

Ozaki Yukio (1859-1954) is remarkable in his time for a commitment to liberalism and equal rights. This essay charts his engagement with British ideas of government, his long term as mayor of Tokyo and his marriage to Yei Theodora.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume V
Author: Bowen, Richard

This portrait considers three of the key pioneers in bringing Jūjutsu (Jūdō) from Japan to Britain in the late 1800s and early 1900s, and the measure of popularity the sport gained.

Book: Japanese Envoys in Britain 1862-1964: A Century of Diplomatic Exchange
Author: Nish, Ian
Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IV
Author: Ruxton, Ian

William Edward Ayrton (1847-1908) was a British physicist and electrical engineer of considerable verve and distinction, becoming the first professor of Electrical Engineering in Japan. This portrait details his highly successful career in Japan's educational institutions.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume II
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

This essay is an attempt to describe the highlights and significance of British royal visits to Japan in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VII
Author: Nish, Ian

Cecil Rice (1861-1918) played an important role in the Russo-Japanese War and subsequently served as Ambassador in Washington during the First World War. This chapter charts his diplomatic career through times of peace and of war, outlining his affection for and dealings with Japan.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VII
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

Sir Edward James Reed (1830-1906) was a leading naval architect who built ships for the Japanese Imperial Navy in the Meiji period and became an advocate for treaty revision, clashing with Sir Harry Parkes. This essay details his illustrious but flawed career and role in Anglo-Japanese relations.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IV
Author: Blacker, Carmen

Sir Edwin Arnold's (1832-1904) time in Japan can be described as nothing less than a love-affair. This portrait considers the impact of Japan upon his writing and poetic career, as well as the impact Arnold had on the understanding of Japan in Britain as he sought to promote and explain Japanese culture.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Kornicki, Peter

This article details Sir Ernest Mason Satow's (1843-1929) further pursuits in Japan between 1873 to 1884. 

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IV
Author: Ruxton, Ian

Sir Ernest Satow (1843-1929) served as head of the British Mission in Japan from 1895 to 1900, and this essay uses his diaries to arrive at an understanding of his chief concerns during his time in Tokyo.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Ruxton, Ian

Sir Ernest Satow (1843-1929), generally regarded as the best qualified official and the most outstanding scholar of Japanese to have been appointed Head of Mission to Japan, served in this rol from 1895 to 1900, and this essay uses his diaries to arrive at an understanding of his chief concerns during his time in Tokyo.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IX
Author: Otte, Thomas G.

Despite having little interest in, or ever visiting Japan, diplomat Francis Bertie, in his role as Assistant Under-secretary at the Foreign Office, was instrumental in preparing the Anglo-Japanese Alliance. This portrait assesses the significance of this contribution as it established the broad parameters of British policy in East Asia for the next two decades.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VII
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

Sir Francis Ottiwell Adams (1826-89) was Secretary of the Legation in Edo from 1868 to 1872. This essay shows how his career in the legation was an important one in the history of modern Japan, having occurred at a time of much social upheaval.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IV
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

This portrait considers the diplomatic career of Sir Francis Plunkett (1835-1907), British Minister at Tokyo from 1884-87, particularly in relation to the attempted revision of the 'unequal treaties'.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

This portrait considers the diplomatic career of Sir Francis Plunkett (1835-1907), British Minister at Tokyo from 1884-87, particularly in relation to the attempted revision of the 'unequal treaties'.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume I
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

This portrait reflects on the diplomatic career of Sir Harry Parkes (1828-1885) from 1865 to 1883, a period of unprecedented revolutionary change.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

This portrait reflects on the diplomatic career of Sir Harry Parkes (1828-1885) from 1865 to 1883, a period of unprecedented revolutionary change, assessing both his personal characteristics and his diplomatic achievements.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IX
Author: Morton, Robert

Interactions with Japan only played a very short part in Sir Henry Keppel's (1809-1904) naval career, but the few years of his involvement saw the collapse of the bakufu and the Meiji Restoration. This essay details his short, but significant, contribution to Anglo-Japanese relations, particularly with regard to the British response to the Meiji Restoration.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VIII
Author: Roberts, Christopher

Sir Hiram Shaw Wilkinson (1840-1926) was one of the leading personalities in the British extra-territorial regime in Japan. He was a member of the Japan Consular Service, an independent practising barrister and the last Judge of Her Britannic Majesty's Court for Japan.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VII
Author: Steeds, David

Intertwined throughout Miles Lampson's (1880-1964) diplomatic career were dealings with and a genuine affection for Japan. This biography traces those dealings, beginning with his involvement in the 1906 Garter Mission, and provides a portrait of this British diplomatic figure.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume II
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

A reassessment of the career of Sir Rutherford Alcock (1809-1897), the first British Minister to Japan from 1859-64.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

A reassessment of the career of Sir Rutherford Alcock (1809-1897), the first British Minister to Japan from 1859-64.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VII
Author: Daniels, Gordon

Sister Ethel McCaul was one of only two specialist nurses to accompany surgeon Frederick Treves to the South African War. Following this experience she became an articulate critic of military medical reform, and saw Japanese systems as a blueprint for change. Experience as a nurse in Meiji era Japan allowed her to reveal aspects of the Japanese system that were in advance of Imperial Britain, and this portrait charts her role in advocating links with Edwardian Britain and Meiji era Japan.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume V
Author: Ruxton, Ian

Despite his being perhaps lesser known than other Meiji era statesmen this essay makes the case of Suematsu Kenchō's (1855-1920) significant contributions in many areas of Japanese politics.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume V
Author: Matsumura, Jerry K.

This portrait considers Takaki Kanehiro's (1849-1920) career, character and contributions as Surgeon General to the Japanese Imperial Navy. Of particular note is his education in, and subsequent dealings with, Britain throughout his life.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VII
Author: Ruxton, Ian

Tatsuno Kingo (1854-1919) was arguably the leading Japanese architect of his day, and master-minded much of the Western-style architecture of Meiji Japan. This essay examines his general architectural career, as well as his dealings with Britain and its influence upon his work.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume III
Author: Ion, Hamish

Alexander Croft Shaw (1848-1902) and Edward Bickersteth (1850-97) strove to bring Japanese and British together on terms of equality in the religious sphere, and this essay details their contribution towards the establishment and growth of the Anglican church in Meiji Japan.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume III
Author: Gow, Ian

This portrait considers the significance of the second British Naval Mission, the Douglas Mission (1873-79) in laying the foundations of basic naval officer training in Meiji Japan and modernising their navy.

Book: Japanese Envoys in Britain 1862-1964: A Century of Diplomatic Exchange
Author: Kadota Shōzō

This article traces the establishment of the Japanese embassy in London from 1870 to 1978, including details of some of the pivotal events in the embassy’s history.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume V
Author: Takeno Hiroyuki

This essay considers two important managers of the Nippon Yūsen Kaisha, and how they devoted their lives to developing Japanese nautical facilities and education for the merchant marine and navy.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume I
Author: Kiyoshi Ikeda

Tōgō Heihachirō's (1848-1934) naval career was one intimately interlinked with Britain, and this essay charts his illustrious role in international diplomacy and the admiralty of the Japanese Imperial Navy.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume V
Author: Itoh Keiko

The history of the Yokohama Specie Bank in London provides a useful window into Japan's pre-war efforts to establish herself as a first-rate modernized empire. This essay considers how the bank reflects Japan's bold strides into the financial centre of the world, London.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VII
Author: Jackson, Neil

Thomas James Waters (1842-98) was the first Professor of Architecture in Japan. This portrait provides an analysis of his personal evangelical convictions and his impact on Japan as an architect-engineer during the early Meiji period.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume V
Author: Milward, Peter

This portrait considers the contribution of Japanese translators of Shakespeare (Fukuda Tsuneari, Odajima Yushi and Anzai Tetsuo) to its appreciation in Japan, and to Shakespearian scholarship in Japan and beyond.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IV
Author: Koyama Noboru

This essay provides an assessment of Anglo-Japanese relations in the Meiji era through the lens of cross-cultural marriages between Japanese men and British women, and the effect of treaty revision on these marriages.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VI
Author: Toyoda Shōichirō

Toyoda Shōichirō offers his memoir of the Toyota Motor Company's establishment, growth, and subsequent association with Britain.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume I
Author: Nish, Ian

Matsudaira Tsuneo (1877-1949) was the longest serving ambassador to the Court of St James, and brought continuity to Anglo-Japanese relations at a time of political instability in Japan.

Book: Britain and Japan 1859-1991: Themes and Personalities
Author: Blacker, Carmen

In this chapter, the lives of Sir Francis Taylor Piggott (1852-1925) and his son F.S.G. Piggott (1883-1966) are detailed in their relation to Japan and involvement with the Japan Society of London. Sir Francis was one of the founders of the Society, and his son was the guiding energy behind its post-war revival.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VIII
Author: Oyama, Mizuo, and Sebastian Dobson

This portait presents the life and military career of Pan-Asianist Utsunomiya Taro (1861-1922), particularly his time in Britain as Japan's military attaché and role during the Russo-Japanese War.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IV
Author: Checkland, Olive

This essay considers the little-known W.K. Burton's (1856-99) outstanding contribution to the municipal infrastructure of Meiji Japan.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VII
Author: Ion, Hamish

This essay details the two halves of Walter Dening's (1846-1913) career in Japan, first as a missionary with the CMS, and later as an agnostic teacher and journalist, when he became one of the best informed Western authorities on Meiji religious and literary thought.

Book: Britain and Japan 1859-1991: Themes and Personalities
Author: Kornicki, Peter

This chapter assesses the life of William George Aston (1841-1911), a diplomat and prominent scholar of Japan. Though Aston remains somewhat of a shadowy figure due to the lack of knowledge of his private life, this appraisal details how his scholarly works in the fields of linguistics and religion have stood the test of time.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Kornicki, Peter

This profile details William George Aston's (1841-1911) career in the consular service and his scholarly achievments as a writer of Japanese language learning books. 

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VI
Author: Kaner, Simon

William Gowland (1842-1922) is arguably one of the most important figures in Japanese Archaeology. This essay details his wider career and dealings with Japan's ancient archaeological sites.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VI
Author: Seki Eiji

The politically active part of Sir Winston Churchill's (1874-1965) life almost coincided with the emergence, decline and rebirth of modern Japan. This essay details Churchill's part in Anglo-Japanese relations both pre and post Second World War.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IX
Author: Nish, Ian

Dr. Wolf Mendl (1926-1999) was one of a small number of British academics focussed upon the history of regional conflict in East Asia, with a particular interest in China-Japan relations during the Cold War. This portrait looks at the impact of his time in Japan on his personal life and scholarly career.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume I
Author: Checkland, Olive

In an effort to raise the status of Japan to that of a major world power, many engineers were sent from Meiji Japan to work and study in Britain. This portrait charts the challenges and opportunities afforded by this endeavour and the resultant exchange between Japan and Britain.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VII
Author: Cobbing, Andrew

This biography offers an account of the life of Yamao Yōzō (1937-1917), one of the Chōshū Five and a pioneer of engineering and education in the Meiji period.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume I
Author: Blacker, Carmen

Yoshio Markino (1869-1956), artist, philosopher, writer and anglophile, lived in London for most of his life.

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