Japan Society E-Library

Religion

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VII
Author: Turner, Louis

This portrait looks at doyen historian Arnold Toynbee's (1889-1975) cult status in Japan, detailing his three visits to the country.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VII
Author: Ion, Hamish

Arthur Lloyd (1852-1911) is best known as a missionary, teacher, author and pioneer in the study of Japanese Buddhism. He is also regarded - along with David Murray and Guido Verbeck - as one of.the pioneers of Japan's modern educational system.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IX
Author: Talks, Audrey Sansbury

This portrait considers Kenneth Sansbury's (1905-1993) time as a missionary in Japan, which coincided with the beginning of the Pacific War.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IX
Author: Ion, Hamish

The aim of the British Bible Societies was to encourage the circulation of the Bible in as many languages as possible. This essay details the translation efforts in Japan of both the New and Old Testaments in the late 19th century.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume V
Author: Purvis, Phillida
Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VII
Author: Kornicki, Peter

Carmen Blacker (1924-2009) became one of Britain's most original and perceptive scholars of Japan, and this account charts the development of her love for the country and the impact this had upon her choice and pursuit of a career in academia.

Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Blacker, Carmen

Carmen Blacker visited Japan in 1952 on a post-graduate studentship granted by HM Treasury, to study the 19th century scholar Yukichi Fukuzawa. While there she was invited to summer with the novelist Jiro Osaragi, during which time she began her work on Japanese religion and spent a week at the famous temple of Engakuji at Kamakura.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IV
Author: Cummins, James

This essay charts Charles Boxer's (1904-2000) abiding love for Japan throughout the Second World War and his internment as a POW, his position as chair of Portugese studies at London University, and his authorship of The Christian Century in Japan.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IX
Author: Ion, Hamish

Christ Church was the first Protestant church in Yokohama, opening its doors in 1863. This portrait details the establishment of the church and the life of its first encumbent, Michael Buckworth Bailey.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume II
Author: Blacker, Carmen

This portrait charts the dual interaction of Christmas Humphreys (1901-83) with Japan as a junior at the Military Tribunal for the Far East and as a devotee of Buddhism.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VI
Author: Gauntlett, Saiko

This essay details the life and career of teacher, explorer, and missionary Edward Gauntlett (1868-1956) in Japan, and his contributions to English education in the country as a whole.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VIII
Author: Koyama Noburu

Elizabeth Gordon (1851-1925) contributed towards a better understanding of Japanese and Western religious culture. This essay details her life and studies of Buddhism both in Britain and Japan.

Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Bull, George

George Bull recounts Graham Greene's encounter with Endō Shūsaku.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VII
Author: Freeth, Rob

This essay recounts Florence Freeth's (1871-1946) pioneering missionary work in Kyushu, where she established a number of kindergartens and nursaries.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IV
Author: Farnie, Douglas

This portrait covers the life and intellectual career of Freda Utley, aetheist, idealist, and writer, particularly as it related to Japan as an emerging power.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IX
Author: Chakmakjian, Pauline

This essay considers the history of freemasonry in Japan - its introduction and issues of compatibility with Japanese religious beliefs.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume I
Author: Wilkinson, Jane

Scottish Doctor who lived in Japan treating Ainu communities. An amateur archaeologist and anthropologist who discovered evidence of the prehistoric people of Japan.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume II
Author: Boyd, Julia

This essay considers the missionary and humanitarian career of Hannah Riddell (1855-1932) in late Meiji Japan.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IV
Author: Nish, Ian

The subject of this portrait is Henry Faulds' (1834-1930) pioneering medical and missionary work in Japan, as well as his abiding affection for the country and its people.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume II
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

Even though John Batchelor (1855-1945) was not an expert in linguistics, ethnology or folklore, his contributions to the understanding of the Ainu people is nonetheless significant. This essay details his missionary career and a life devoted to the Ainu people.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VIII
Author: Dobson, Sebastian

This portrait outlines John Mathews James' (1838-1908) involvement in the modernisation of the Japanese Navy, along with his impact on the toponymy of Tokyo.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume II
Author: Blacker, Carmen

Before his unfortunate infatuation with conman Thomas Lake Harris, Laurence Oliphant (1858-88) made two visits to Japan, each time leaving a fascinating account of his adventures. This essay details those colourful adventures, both personal and diplomatic.

Book: Britain and Japan 1859-1991: Themes and Personalities
Author: Blacker, Carmen

Marie Stopes (1907-1958) is most widely known as the pioneer of birth control and sex education for women in Britain. This chapter details her often forgotten early years in Japan, including her published works on Japanese theatre and her love affair with a professor at Tokyo University, as well as her employment as the first female Western scientist to work at Tokyo University.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VIII
Author: Nakamura Shigeru

This portrait traces the missionary career of Mary Legh (1857-1941), who came to Japan at the age of fifty to aid sufferers of leprosy.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume I
Author: Blacker, Carmen

This essay considers the remarkable scholarly career of the brilliant but eccentric polymath Minakata Kumagusu (1867-1941), an expert in natural history, folklore and classicism, as well as an assessment of the significance of his time in London to his work.

Book: Japanese Envoys in Britain 1862-1964: A Century of Diplomatic Exchange
Author: Nish, Ian

This portrait charts the political career of Mori Arinori (1847-1889), a Meiji statesman whose time in Britain played a significant role in his move from liberalism to conservatism.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IV
Author: Cobbing, Andrew

This portrait charts the political career of Mori Arinori (1847-89), a Meiji statesman whose time in Britain played a significant role in his move from liberalism to conservatism.

Book: Britain and Japan 1859-1991: Themes and Personalities
Author: Ion, Hamish

This chapter covers the life of Walter Weston (1861-1940) an Anglican clergyman who is also responsible for pioneering mountain climbing as a popular leisure sport in Japan. 

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IV
Author: Ohta Akiko

This portrait details the significance of Nakamura Masanao's (1832-91) encounter with Victorian Britain and his subsequent translation into Japanese of Samuel Smiles' Self Help.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VI
Author: Nish, Ian

Nitobe Inazō (1862-1933) was Japan's first international civil servant at the League of Nations. This essay deals with Nitobe’s experiences in the secretariat of the League during its early days in London.

Book: Japan Experiences - Fifty Years, One Hundred Views: Post-War Japan Through British Eyes
Author: Blacker, Carmen

Carmen Blacker's recollection of writer Osaragi Jirō.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume I
Author: Pinnington, Adrian

R.H. Blythe (1898-1964) was not a scholar, but his writing had a profound influence upon the popular British understanding of Zen Buddhism, haiku and the Japanese monarchy.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume II
Author: Britton, Dorothy

Richard Ponsonby-Fane (1878-37) was a prodigious scholar and writer on Japan, and yet his name is absent from encyclopaedias or bibliographies. Here Dorothy Britton celebrates his personal legacy.

Book: Britain and Japan 1859-1991: Themes and Personalities
Author: Smith, Dennis

Sir Charles Eliot (1862-1931) became British Ambassador at Tokyo in 1919. This chapter details his life and career as an often overlooked figure in Anglo-Japanese relations, who made significant contributions to scholarship and whose time as ambassador coincided with the end of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Smith, Dennis

This profile considers the career of Sir Charles Eliot (1862-1931) including his contributions to the field of oriental scholarship and his time as ambassador, overseeing the end of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance. 

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VII
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

Sir Francis Ottiwell Adams (1826-89) was Secretary of the Legation in Edo from 1868 to 1872. This essay shows how his career in the legation was an important one in the history of modern Japan, having occurred at a time of much social upheaval.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

This portrait reflects on the diplomatic career of Sir Harry Parkes (1828-1885) from 1865 to 1883, a period of unprecedented revolutionary change, assessing both his personal characteristics and his diplomatic achievements.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IV
Author: O'Connor, Peter

This essay considers three editors of the Japan Chronicle, among them two of the most perceptive writers on Japan anywhere, covering the period from 1891 to 1940.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume III
Author: Ion, Hamish

Alexander Croft Shaw (1848-1902) and Edward Bickersteth (1850-97) strove to bring Japanese and British together on terms of equality in the religious sphere, and this essay details their contribution towards the establishment and growth of the Anglican church in Meiji Japan.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume V
Author: Harrop, Len
Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VI
Author: Cortazzi, Hugh

This essay provides an account and analysis of The Shōwa Emperor's (Hirohito's) visit to Britain in 1970. It marked the first Japanese state visit to Britian, as well as the first time a Japanese emperor had ever made a visit abroad.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VII
Author: Jackson, Neil

Thomas James Waters (1842-98) was the first Professor of Architecture in Japan. This portrait provides an analysis of his personal evangelical convictions and his impact on Japan as an architect-engineer during the early Meiji period.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IV
Author: Koyama Noboru

This essay provides an assessment of Anglo-Japanese relations in the Meiji era through the lens of cross-cultural marriages between Japanese men and British women, and the effect of treaty revision on these marriages.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IV
Author: O'Connor, Peter

Timothy Conroy (1883-1935) had a high opinion of his knowledge pertaining to Imperial Japan, one which was not shared widely other than in Fleet Street. However, the publication of his book The Menace of Japan in 1933 coincided with the explosion of Japanese military activity in China, a fact that led considerable credibility to his writings.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IV
Author: Dunne, Anthony, and Bowen, Richard

This portrait sketches the life, attitude and career of the renowned judo practitioner Trevor Pryce Leggett (1914-2000).

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VII
Author: Ion, Hamish

This essay details the two halves of Walter Dening's (1846-1913) career in Japan, first as a missionary with the CMS, and later as an agnostic teacher and journalist, when he became one of the best informed Western authorities on Meiji religious and literary thought.

Book: Britain and Japan 1859-1991: Themes and Personalities
Author: Kornicki, Peter

This chapter assesses the life of William George Aston (1841-1911), a diplomat and prominent scholar of Japan. Though Aston remains somewhat of a shadowy figure due to the lack of knowledge of his private life, this appraisal details how his scholarly works in the fields of linguistics and religion have stood the test of time.

Book: British Envoys in Japan 1859-1972
Author: Kornicki, Peter

This profile details William George Aston's (1841-1911) career in the consular service and his scholarly achievments as a writer of Japanese language learning books. 

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume VI
Author: Kaner, Simon

William Gowland (1842-1922) is arguably one of the most important figures in Japanese Archaeology. This essay details his wider career and dealings with Japan's ancient archaeological sites.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume IX
Author: Townsend, Susan C.

This essay details colonial studies scholar Yanaihara Tadao's (1893-1961) impressions during his 1920-21 tour of Britain, and examines the ways in which his study abroad and his Christian beliefs influenced his thought.

Book: Biographical Portraits Volume V
Author: Wilcox, Geraldine
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